Pscyh Chpt 13

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Pscyh Chpt 13
2011-05-24 10:41:04

Exam 3 Psych- Personality
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  1. the characteristic thoughts, emotional responses and behaviors that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances
  2. a characteristic; a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances
    -building blocks of personality
    personality trait
  3. the idea that personality can be described using 5 factors:
    -openness to experience
    • Five Factor Theory
    • (Big 5)
  4. One of the Big 5
    -imaginative vs. down to earth
    -likes variety vs. likes routine
    -independent vs. conforming
    Openness to Eperience
  5. One of the Big 5
    -social vs. retiring
    -fun-loving vs. sober
    -affectionate vs. reserved
  6. One of the Big 5
    -soft-hearted vs. ruthless
    -trusting vs. suspicious
    -helpful vs. uncooperative
  7. One of the Big 5
    -organized vs. disorganized
    -careful vs. careless
    -self-disciplined vs. weak-willed
  8. One of the Big 5
    -worried vs. calm
    -insecure vs. secure
    -self-pitying vs. self-satisfying
  9. Produced the first theory of Personality- balance of 4 humours
    -correspond to personality types
    -Theory of Temperamentum
  10. biologically based tendencies to feel or act in certain ways
    -broader than traits
    -highly heritable
    -measured in infancy
  11. Activity level- amount of energy
    emotionality- intensity of emotional reactions
    socialbility- tendency to affiliate with people
    3 persoanlity characteristics- temperaments
  12. have low arousablity--> seek stimulation
  13. have high arousability--> avoid external stimulation
  14. believed differences in between introversion and extroversion due to arousability
  15. believed that differences between introverts and extroverts due to behavioral inhibition system and behavioral activation system
  16. the brain system involved in the pursuit of incentives or rewards
    Behavioral Approach System
  17. the brain system that is sensitive to punishment and therefore inhibits behavior that might lead to danger or pain
    • Behavioral Inhibition System
    • (BIS)
  18. one of the most heritable traits
    -tendency to seek out new and exciting things
    sensation seeking
  19. the bond with first caretaker-->sets stage for implicit theories/explanations about other relationships
  20. thoerized that personality will be determined by how child passes through psychosexual stages
    -always regress to problem stages
  21. unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives influence behavior
    psychodynamic theory
  22. associated with pleasure seeking-->satisfies life instinct
  23. the developmental stages that correspond to the pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges
    psychosexual stages
  24. psychosexual stage in which pleasure sought through the motuth
    -0-18 months
    -find pleasure through being fed
    oral stage
  25. psychosexual stage in which toilet training is important
    -gives a sense of power
    -ages 2-3
    anal stage
  26. psychosexual stage in which pleasure comes from the genitals
    ages 3-6
    features oedipus/electra complex
    phallic stage
  27. fixation on opposite sex parent
    same sex parent is rival
    eventually identify with the rival
    oedipus/electra complex
  28. the component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious and operates according to the pleasure principle
    -greedy, childlike, wants
  29. component of personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego
    -reality principle, negotiator, knows better than impulses
  30. the component of personality- internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct
    -moral, socail standards, like your conscience
  31. unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself from conflict and distress
    defense mechanisms
  32. defense mechanism:
    keeps distracting thoughts or feelings buried in subconscious
    -can lead to Freudian slips
  33. defense mechanism:
    create a plausible but false excuse to justify behavior
  34. defense mechanism:
    attributing one's own state to another
  35. defense mechanism:
    diversion of state to another substitute target
  36. defense mechanism:
    behaving in the opposite fashion in an exagherated way
    reaction formation
  37. defense mechanism:
    redirecting motive toward more desirable social ends
  38. extent to which we believe influential forces lie within or outside the individual
    locus of control
  39. belifes about ability and competence
    -high level=persistance on hard tasks
    -can be domain specific
  40. theories of personality that emphasize personal growth and belief systems; propose people seek personal growth to fulfill their human potential
    -free will and growth, not as concerned about early development
    humanistic theories
  41. process by which people strive to fulfill their potential for personal growth through greater-self understanding
    self-activating motive
  42. receiving unqualified acceptance from significant others
    unconditional positive regard
  43. when being accepted by significant others is contingent upon one's behavior
    -bad for self-actualization and healthy personality
    conditions of worth
  44. personality tests that examine unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuli
    -Rorschach tests
    -TAT (Thematic Appreciation Test)
    -can be influenced by previous experiences as much as personality
    projective measures
  45. person-centered approaches to studying personality that focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique perons
    -different for all people
    idiographic approaches
  46. focus on how people vary across common traits
    ex: Big 5
    -use same metric to compare people
    nomotheitic approaches
  47. errors in reporting
    possibility that some poeple better judges than others
    judge effect
  48. error in reporting
    -some people more easily judged than others
    target effect
  49. error in reporting
    -some traits easier to judge/predict
    trait effect
  50. error in reporting
    -certain situations make judging easier
    situations effect
  51. theory that situations determine behavior more than traits
    -strong vs. week situations
    -similar across cultures
  52. theory that behavior is jointly determined by underlying dispositions and situations
  53. believedt that personality learned responses to patterns of reinforcement
    -cognition also part
  54. people's understanding of their circumstances
    -personal theories of how the world works
    personal constructs
  55. believed Behavior was a function of expectancies for reinforcement, values ascribed to certain reinforcers
  56. belief that we bring about our own rewards
    internal locus of control
  57. belief that results/rewards are not in our control--> controlled by outside forces
    external locus of control
  58. theories that emphasize how personal beliefs, expectancies and interpretaions of social situations shape behavior and personality
    cognitive-social theories
  59. people's responses are influenced by how they perceive a situation, their affective (emotional) response, their skills in dealing with challenges, and their anticipation of the outcomes of their behavior
    -theorized by Mischel
    cognitive-affective personality system
  60. expect to fail--> enter situations with dread
    -still perform just as well as optimists
    -different motivational strategies
    defensive pessimism
  61. people set goals, evaluate their progress, and adjust behavior
    self-regulatory capacity
  62. relatively direct assesments of personality, usually based on information gathered through self-report questionaires or observer ratings
    -does not try to uncover hidden/secret info
    objective measures