Science Sem 2 Exam

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katie140154
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Science Sem 2 Exam
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2011-05-30 19:49:04
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  1. a large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of plants and animal communities
    biome
  2. refers to the weather conditions, such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, and winds, in an area over a long period of time
    climate
  3. the distatnce north or south of the equator, measured in degrees
    latitude
  4. the height of an object above sea level
    altitude
  5. the top layer of a rainforest, consisting of the tallest trees, 60-70m
    emergent layer
  6. the primary layer of the rainforest
    canopy
  7. plants that use the entire surface of a tree as a place to live
    epiphytes
  8. the lowest layer of the rainforest, gets almost no light
    understory
  9. a layer of soil that is permanently frozen throughout the year
    permafrost
  10. organisms thatcannot swim against currents, drifters
    plankton
  11. free-swimming organisms
    nekton
  12. bottom-dwelling organisms
    benthos
  13. a zone in lakes or ponds, near the shore, has diverse and abundant aquatic life
    littoral zone
  14. a zone in lakes or ponds, the bottom of a pond or lake
    benthic zone
  15. an increase in the amount of nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem
    eutrophication
  16. a lake that has a large amount of algae and plant growth due to nutrients
    eutrophic lake
  17. tiny coral animals
    coral polyps
  18. when corals turn white
    coral bleeching
  19. all the members of a species living in the same place at the same time
    population
  20. the number of individuals per unit area or volume
    density
  21. the relative distribution or arrangement of its individuals within a given amount of space
    dispersion
  22. the birth rate - the death rate =
    growth rate
  23. the maximum number of offspring that each member of th population can produce
    reproductivee potential
  24. when populations grow faster and faster
    exponential growth
  25. the maximum population that an ecosystem can support indefinately
    carrying capacity
  26. an area defended by one or more individuals against other individuals
    territory
  27. deaths occur more quickly in a crowded population than in a sparse one
    density dependent
  28. a certain proportion of a population dies regargless of the density
    density independent
  29. the unique role of a species within an ecosystem
    niche
  30. a relationship in which two species live in close association
    symbiosis
  31. the number of different species in an area
    biodiversity
  32. species that are criticcal to the functioning of an ecosystem
    keystone species
  33. a form of tourism that supports the conservation and sustainable development of ecologically unique areas
    ecotourism
  34. a species that is likely to become extinct if protective measures are not taken immediately
    endangered species
  35. a species that has a declining population and is likely to become endangered if it is not protected
    threatened species
  36. a species that is not native to a particular region
    exotic species
  37. species that are native to and found only in a limited area
    endemic species
  38. the most threatened areas of high species diversity on Earth
    biodiversity hotspots
  39. any form of genetic material, such as contained within the reproductive, or germs, cells of plants and animals
    germ plasm
  40. the remains of ancient organisms that changed into coal, oil, of natural gas
    fossil fuels
  41. a machine that converts mechanical energy, or motion, into electrical energy
    electric generator
  42. a wheel that changes the force of a moving gas or liquid into energy that can do work
    turbine
  43. oil that is pumped from the ground
    petroleum
  44. another name for petroleum
    crude oil
  45. oil deposits that can be extracted profitably at current prices using current technology
    oil reserves
  46. when nuclei split and release energy
    nucllear fission
  47. when nuclei combine to create energy
    nuclear fusion
  48. energy from sources that are constantly being formed
    renewable energy
  49. energy sources that are still in development
    alternative energy
  50. the percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work
    energy efficiency
  51. saving energy
    energy conservation
  52. any discarded solid material
    solid watse
  53. a material that can be broken down by natural processes
    biodegradable
  54. the watse produced by households and businesses
    municipal solid watse
  55. a permanent waste disposal facility where wastes are put into the ground andcovered each day with a layer of soil/plastic/both
    landfill
  56. a liquid that has passed through compacted solid waste in a landfill
    leachate
  57. any change in design, mnufacture, purchase, or use of materials or products to reduce their amount or toxicity before they become municipal waste
    source reduction
  58. the process of reusing materials or recovering valuable materials from waste or scrap
    recycling
  59. a dark brown, crumbly material made from decomosed plant and animal matter that is spread on gardens and fields to enrich the soil
    compost
  60. any watse that is a risk to the health of humans or other living things
    hazardous waste
  61. when wastes are pumped deep into the ground, where they are absorbed into a dry layer of rock below the level of groundwater
    deep-well injection
  62. a pond that has a sealed bottom
    surface impoundment
  63. name the type of bond that holds together the nitrogen bases in DNA
    hydrogen bond
  64. a very long molecule, a polymer, found in the nucleus
    DNA
  65. name the 4 base pairs
    • adenine
    • thyamine
    • cytosine
    • guanine
  66. name the bases and their pairs
    • adenine and thyamine
    • cytosine and guanine
  67. the shape of DNA
    double helix
  68. name the three parts of a DNA nucleotide
    • phosphate group
    • sugar
    • nitrogen base
  69. who studied pea plants
    mendel
  70. when DNA makes copies of itself
    DNA replication
  71. name the two types of cell division
    • mitosis
    • meiosis
  72. somatic cells
    body cells
  73. what type of division does somatic cells go through
    mitosis
  74. sex cells
    gametes
  75. the haploid number
    23
  76. the diploid number
    46
  77. long strnads of DNA
    chromosomes
  78. a chart of chromosome pairs
    karyotype
  79. a code for the production of different proteins
    DNA
  80. how many amino acids are there
    20
  81. long chains of amino acids
    proteins
  82. the passing of characteristics from parent to offspring
    heredity
  83. characteristics that are inherited
    traits
  84. alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait
    allele
  85. the physical trait
    phenotype
  86. the gene combination for a specific trait
    genotype
  87. a cross involving one trait
    monohybrid cross
  88. inheritance patterns where the phenotype of the heterozygote is intermediate
    incomplete dominance
  89. inheritance patterns where both alleles of the trait are seen
    codominance
  90. symbloized with 2 capital letters, a pattern of inheritance
    codominance
  91. the inheritance pattern with apostrophies
    incomplete dominance
  92. traits controlled by gene located on the sex chromosome
    sex linked trait
  93. has x^R and y
    sex linked traits
  94. how are blood types A and B sybmolized
    I^A and I^B
  95. how is blood type O symbloized
    i
  96. the sex chromosome
    23
  97. name the purines
    adenine and guanine
  98. name the pyrimidines
    thymine and cytosine
  99. what replaces thymine
    uracil
  100. double ringed
    purines
  101. single ringed
    pyrimidines
  102. where is the genetic code?
    the sequence of the bases
  103. a freshwater wetland dominated by non-woody plants
    marshes
  104. a freshwater wetland dominated by woody plants
    swamp
  105. rootlike structures, what mosses use to anchor to a rock
    rhizoids
  106. run parallel to sandy shores
    barrier islands
  107. name the limiting resources in aquatic ecosystems
    • salinity
    • dissolved oxygen
    • sunlight
  108. faster stream=________ oxygen
    greater
  109. rivers have _____ nutrients and _____ oxygen
    • more
    • less
  110. name the two types of plankton
    • zoo-
    • phyto-
  111. the portion of the shoreline that is covered with water at high tide and exposed at low tide
    intertidal zone
  112. name the two ocean zones
    • photic
    • aphotic
  113. this ocean zone has sunlight and abundant life
    photic
  114. this ocean zone has no sunlight and highly adapted life
    aphotic
  115. a circuit with one path
    series circuit
  116. a circuit with alternate paths in case one light goes out
    parallel circuits
  117. the magnetic field in an electric generator
    armature
  118. a huge fan that generates electricity when the baldes spin
    turbine
  119. the formula for energy efficiency
    [(useful energy out)/total energy in] X 100%
  120. pollutants that directly harm the air
    primary
  121. name the primary pollutants (5)
    • carbon monoxide
    • nitrogen oxide
    • sulfur dioxide
    • VOC's
    • particulate matter
  122. name secondary pollutants (3)
    • smog
    • ozone pollution
    • acid rain
  123. name some ways to spin a turbine
    • fossil fuels
    • wind
    • water
    • geothermal
    • biomass
    • ocean thermal energy
    • nuclear
    • incineration
    • ocean thermal energy
  124. name 3 ways to directly create electricity
    • solar
    • hydrogen fuel cells
    • batteries
  125. name 2 ways we call energy useful
    • generate electricity
    • move matter around
  126. pressure that pushes electrons through a circuit
    voltage
  127. the measure of the pressure applied to electrons to make them move
    voltage
  128. a measure of the strength of the current in a circuit
    voltage
  129. what is voltage measured in
    volts (V)
  130. the number of electrons flowing passed a fixed point
    current
  131. electrons flowing between two points having different voltage
    electrical current
  132. what is current measured in
    amps (A)
  133. a property that slows the flow of electrons
    resistance
  134. what is resistance measured in
    ohms (omega)
  135. any device placed in a circuit to do work
    load
  136. current X resistance=
    voltage
  137. voltage=
    current X resistance
  138. a measure of the rate of doing work or the rate at which energy is converted
    power (P)
  139. the amount of electric current flowing due to applied voltage
    electrical power
  140. what is electrical power measured in
    watts (W)
  141. power=
    voltage X current
  142. voltage X current=
    power
  143. what is electrical energy measured in
    watt hours (Wh)
  144. what is the unit used when billing people
    kilo watt hours (kWh)
  145. energy=
    power X time
  146. power X time=
    energy
  147. name ways to increase ther light (brighter light)
    • increase the number of electrons/current
    • gatter wires to decrease friction
    • increase the voltage(different battery)
  148. how do you find the cost of energy ($)
    (power X time = electrical energy) X price = cost
  149. name the two types of energy
    • kinetic
    • potential
  150. compressed strings and stretched rubber bands are stored________
    mechanical energy
  151. the vibration and movement of atoms and molecules within substances
    thermal
  152. energy stored in the center of atoms
    nuclear
  153. the movement of energy through substances in longitudal waves
    sound
  154. the movement of objects and substances from place to place
    motion
  155. electromagnetic energy travelling in transverse waves
    radiant
  156. energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules
    chemical
  157. the movement of anything
    kinetic
  158. the movement of electrons
    electrical
  159. the amount of useful energy that you can get from a system
    energy efficiency
  160. the energy in petroleum and coal is stored _______ energy
    chemical
  161. x-rays=
    radiant energy
  162. fission and fusion
    nuclear
  163. used in the stars
    fusion
  164. combining nuclei to make energy
    fusion
  165. breaking down nuclei to make energy
    fission
  166. movement energy
    mechanical
  167. energy of waves
    radiant
  168. number of peaks that pass a point in one time
    frequency
  169. the distance between peaks
    wave length
  170. intermediate energy
    electrical
  171. the most difficult energy to release
    nuclear
  172. earth's system pertaining to matter
    closed
  173. earth's system pertaining to energy
    open
  174. what does the first law of thermodynamics say
    • conservation of matter
    • conservation of energy
  175. force X distance =
    work
  176. work=
    force X distance
  177. a law designed to protect plant and animal species in danger of extinction
    endangered species act
  178. a plan thaplant attempts to protect one or more species across large areas of land through trade-offs or cooperative agreements
    habitat conservation plan
  179. an international agreement with the goal to preserve biodiversity and ensure the sustainable and fair use of genetic resources in all countries
    biodiversity treaty
  180. programs that involve breeding species in captivity, with the hope of reintroducing populations to their natural habitats
    captive-breeding programs
  181. IUCN
    international union for the conservation of nature and natural resources
  182. lists of species around the world in danger of extinction
    red lists
  183. CITES
    the convention on international trade in endangered species
  184. the first effective effort to stop the slaughter of african elephants
    CITES
  185. the UN conference on environment and developement
    Earth Summit
  186. 23.5 degree north line
    tropic of cancer
  187. 23.5 degree south line
    tropic of capricorn
  188. name the biomes in the tropic area
    • rainforest
    • savanna
    • desert
    • reefs
  189. name the 3 grassland
    • papmas
    • eurasian steppe
    • prairie
  190. 65-90 degrees north
    50-60 degrees north
    • arctic
    • sub-arctic
  191. 65-90 degrees south
    50-60 degrees south
    • antarctic
    • sub-antarctic
  192. very fertile soil, much farming, habitat destruction
    grasslands
  193. no trees, burrowing and grazing animals
    grasslands
  194. dry and wet season
    savanna
  195. poaching and farming
    savanna
  196. 4 seasons
    temp. deciduous forest
  197. fertile soil due to leaves falling and adding nutrients to the soil
    temp deciduous forest
  198. acidic soil due to pine needles
    taiga
  199. the most fragile biomes
    tundra and desert
  200. greatest diversity
    rainforest
  201. where many medicines come from
    rainforest
  202. what percent of earth's surface do oceans cover
    70%
  203. what determines the characteristics in a biome
    latitude
  204. what are biomes described by
    vegetation
  205. where are the protons on the table
    atomic number
  206. protons=
    electrons
  207. neutrons=
    mass - protons
  208. circle the nucleus, valence number
    electrons
  209. atomic mass=
    protons + neutrons
  210. the densest atmospheric layer
    troposphere
  211. the coldest atmospheric layer
    mesosphere
  212. the hottest atmospheric layer
    thermosphere
  213. where weather happens
    troposphere
  214. between atmospheric layers
    -pause
  215. name the atmospheric layers in order
    • tropo
    • strato
    • meso
    • thermo
  216. name the 3 zones in the ocean
    • surface zone
    • thermocline
    • deep zone

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