Psychology Memory

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Psychology Memory
2011-05-24 11:49:59
Psych Memory PSYA1

Revision cards for PSYA1 Memory module.
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  1. Attkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
    Multi-Store Model

  2. Baddeley & Hitch (1974)
    Working Memory Model
  3. What you can repeat immediately after perceiving it.
    Short Term Memory
  4. The ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimulus has ceased.
    Sensory Memory
  5. Your general store of remembered information. Unlimited cappacity.
    Long Term Memory
  6. Converting into a construct that can be stored within the brain and recalled later from short term or long term memory.
  7. The maximum amount that something can contain.
  8. The time during which something continues.
  9. Suggested that most people store about seven plus or minus two independent or discrete items in short term memory. These items may be numbers, letters or words etc. Referred to each of these items as chunks.
    i.e. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 = Seven discrete chunks.
    Miller (1956)
  10. Suggested that about seven chunks of information may be stored in short term memory whether in single or combined forms give or take one or two chunks, "The magical number seven plus or minus two"____________ 7 +/- 2.
    Miller (1956)
  11. Participants were given 'sentences' of varying lengths that approximated 'true' English. They were asked to recall words in the correct order given in the sentence.The more sense the sentence made, in terms of grammar, the better the recall. This suggests that the semantic (meaning) and grammatical structure, which is probably stored in LTM, is used to help increase amount of information stored in STM by combining items to create larger chunks. Participants still recalled about seven pieces of information.
    Miller (1956)
  12. Criticisms of this laboratory experiment include ecological validity, demand characteristics, experimenter bias, participant variables/individual differences. The experiment has good reliability. The research is dated.
    Miller (1956)
  13. Devised a technique that prevents information from being continually repeated in the STM in order to test how long information will be retained. This continual repetition of information in order to hold on to it is referred to as Maintenance Rehearsal.
    Brown & Peterson & Peterson (1959)
  14. Suggested that the short-term memory can store information for approximately 15 to 30 seconds if maintenance rehearsal is prevented.
    Brown & Peterson & Peterson (1959)
  15. Suggest that information decays (fades away) rapidly in short term memory unless rehearsal of that information occurs.
    Peterson & Peterson
  16. A lab experiment was conducted. Participants had to recall trigrams (three letters, eg. TGH). To prevent rehersal participants were asked to count backwards in threes from a specified number.
    Participants were asked to recall the trigram after intervals of either 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 seconds.
    Peterson & Peterson (1959)
  17. Participants were presented with a list of consonants.For example: P J N R Z D for about ¾ of a second. Then asked to recall. Found that errors of recall were linked to letters which had a similar sound. Bs were mistaken for Ps 62 times, Vs were mistaken for Ps 83 times but Ss were mistaken for Ps only 2 times.
    Conrad (1964)
  18. This suggests that visually presented information is encoded according to acoustics/sounds. Conrad referred to these errors as Acoustic Confusion.
    Conrad (1964)