a&e chap16 medic12

Card Set Information

Author:
thom.mccusker@gmail.com
ID:
87487
Filename:
a&e chap16 medic12
Updated:
2011-05-24 16:37:07
Tags:
chap16 medic12
Folders:

Description:
a&e chap16 medic12
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user thom.mccusker@gmail.com on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Digestive Tract
    • 1) oral cavity
    • 2) pharynx
    • 3) esophagus
    • 4) stomach
    • 5) small intestine
    • 6) large intestine
    • 7) rectum
    • 8) anus
  2. 1) oral cavity
    2) pharynx
    3) esophagus
    4) stomach
    5) small intestine
    6) large intestine
    7) rectum
    8) anus
    Digestive Tract
  3. In some areas portions of the digestive tract are suspended. By what means are they suspended?
    Mesenteries
  4. Mesenteries
    In some areas they suspend portions of the digestive tract are suspended.
  5. What are mesenteries composed of?
    Double sheets of peritoneal membrane.
  6. Double sheets of peritoneal membrane.
    What are mesenteries composed of?
  7. Muscularis externa propels materials through the digestive tract by what means?
    the contractions of peristalsis
  8. the contractions of peristalsis
    Muscularis externa propels materials through the digestive tract by what means?
  9. segmentation movements
    in areas of the small intestine churn digestive material
  10. in areas of the small intestine churn digestive material
    segmentation movements
  11. Stomach Major Functions
    • 1) temporary storage of ingested food
    • 2) mechanical breakdown of food
    • 3) breakage of chemical bonds by acids & enzymes
    • 4) production of intrinsic factor
  12. 1) temporary storage of ingested food
    2) mechanical breakdown of food
    3) breakage of chemical bonds by acids & enzymes
    4) production of intrinsic factor
    Stomach Major Functions
  13. Chyme
    forms in the stomach as gastric & salivary secretions are mixed with food
  14. forms in the stomach as gastric & salivary secretions are mixed with food
    Chyme
  15. Regions of the Stomach
    • 1) cardia
    • 2) fundus
    • 3) body
    • 4) pylorus
  16. 1) cardia
    2) fundus
    3) body
    4) pylorus
    Regions of the Stomach
  17. pyloric sphincter
    guards the exit from the stomach
  18. guards the exit from the stomach
    pyloric sphincter
  19. rugae
    numerous ridges & folds found in the stomach lining when in a relaxed state
  20. numerous ridges & folds found in the stomach lining when in a relaxed state
    rugae
  21. what do parietal cells, located within the gastric gland, secrete?
    intrinsic factor & hydrochloric acid
  22. intrinsic factor & hydrochloric acid
    what do parietal cells, located within the gastric gland, secrete?
  23. what do chief cells secrete?
    pepsinogen
  24. pepsinogen
    what do chief cells secrete?
  25. what do acids in the gastric lumen convert pepsinogen into?
    pepsin (enzyme)
  26. pepsin (enzyme)
    what do acids in the gastric lumen convert pepsinogen into?
  27. what do gastric gland endocrine cells secrete?
    gastrin (hormone)
  28. gastrin (hormone)
    what do gastric gland endocrine cells secrete?
  29. gastric secretion phases include
    • 1) cephalic phase, prepares the stomach to receive ingested material
    • 2) gastric phase, begins w/ the arrival of food in the stomach
    • 3) intestinal phase, controls the rate of gastric emptying
  30. 1) cephalic phase, prepares the stomach to receive ingested material
    2) gastric phase, begins w/ the arrival of food in the stomach
    3) intestinal phase, controls the rate of gastric emptying
    gastric secretion phases include
  31. small intestine includes
    • 1) duodenum
    • 2) jejunum
    • 3) ileum
  32. 1) duodenum
    2) jejunum
    3) ileum
    small intestine includes
  33. ileocecal valve
    is a sphincter & marks the junction between the small & large intestines
  34. is a sphincter & marks the junction between the small & large intestines
    ileocecal valve
  35. what are the transverse folds found in the intestinal mucosa?
    plicae
  36. plicae
    what are the transverse folds found in the intestinal mucosa?
  37. what are the small projections found in the intestinal mucosa?
    intestinal villi
  38. intestinal villi
    what are the small projections found in the intestinal mucosa?
  39. what do plicae & intestinal villi do?
    these structures increase the surface area for absorption
  40. these structures increase the surface area for absorption
    what do plicae & intestinal villi do?
  41. lacteal
    lymphatic capillary found in each villus
  42. lymphatic capillary found in each villus
    lacteal
  43. why do smooth muscle cells in the muscularis externa of the small intestine contract periodically, without stimulation?
    to produce brief localized peristaltic contractions that slowly move materials along the tract.
  44. to produce brief localized peristaltic contractions that slowly move materials along the tract.
    why do smooth muscle cells in the muscularis externa of the small intestine contract periodically, without stimulation?
  45. peristaltic activities, greater than those of the muscularis externa, are coordinated by?
    gastroenteric & the gastroileal reflexes
  46. gastroenteric & the gastroileal reflexes
    peristaltic activities, greater than those of the muscularis externa, are coordinated by?
  47. what do intestinal glands secrete?
    • 1) intestinal juice
    • 2) mucus
    • 3) hormones
  48. 1) intestinal juice
    2) mucus
    3) hormones
    what do intestinal glands secrete?
  49. what does intestinal juice do?
    • 1) moistens the chyme
    • 2) helps buffer acids
    • 3) dissolves digestive enzymes & the products of digestion
  50. 1) moistens the chyme
    2) helps buffer acids
    3) dissolves digestive enzymes & the products of digestion
    what does intestinal juice do?
  51. intestinal hormones include
    • 1) gastrin
    • 2) secretin
    • 3) cholecystokinin (CCK)
    • 4) gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)
  52. 1) gastrin
    2) secretin
    3) cholecystokinin (CCK)
    4) gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)
    intestinal hormones include
  53. where do most of the digestive & absorptive functions occur?
    in the small intestine
  54. in the small intestine
    where do most of the digestive & absorptive functions occur?
  55. digestive enzymes & buffers are produced by what organs?
    • 1) pancreas
    • 2) liver
    • 3) gallbladder
  56. 1) pancreas
    2) liver
    3) gallbladder
    digestive enzymes & buffers are produced by what organs?
  57. pancreatic duct
    penetrates the wall of the duodenum, where it delivers the secretions of the pancreas.
  58. penetrates the wall of the duodenum, where it delivers the secretions of the pancreas.
    pancreatic duct
  59. what functions does the pancreas have?
    • 1) endocrine (secretes insulin & glucagoninto the blood)
    • 2) exocrine (secretes water, ions, & digestive enzymes into the small intestines)
  60. 1) endocrine (secretes insulin & glucagoninto the blood)
    2) exocrine (secretes water, ions, & digestive enzymes into the small intestines)
    what functions does the pancreas have?
  61. what enzymes does the pancreas secrete?
    • 1) carbohydrases
    • 2) lipases
    • 3) nucleases
    • 4) proteases
  62. 1) carbohydrases
    2) lipases
    3) nucleases
    4) proteases
    what enzymes does the pancreas secrete?
  63. pancreatic juice
    watery substance produced by the pancreatic exocrine cells in response to instructions from the duodenum.
  64. watery substance produced by the pancreatic exocrine cells in response to instructions from the duodenum.
    pancreatic juice
  65. what hormones are released when chyme arrives in the small intestine?
    secretin & CCK
  66. secretin & CCK
    what hormones are released when chyme arrives in the small intestine?
  67. release of secretin triggers what for the pancreas to produce?
    a fluid that contains buffers (primarily sodium bicarbonate) that help bring the pH of the chyme under control.
  68. a fluid that contains buffers (primarily sodium bicarbonate) that help bring the pH of the chyme under control.
    release of secretin triggers what for the pancreas to produce?
  69. CCK stimulates the pancreas to produce & secrete what?
    • 1) pancreatic amylase
    • 2) pancreatic lipase
    • 3) nucleases
    • 4) several proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, & carboxypeptidase)
  70. 1) pancreatic amylase
    2) pancreatic lipase
    3) nucleases
    4) several proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, & carboxypeptidase)
    CCK stimulates the pancreas to produce & secrete what?
  71. liver
    • - largest visceral organ in the body
    • - performs over 200 known functions
  72. - largest visceral organ in the body
    - performs over 200 known functions
    liver
  73. liver made up of...
    • 4 unequally sized lobes
    • 1) left
    • 2) right
    • 3) caudate
    • 4) quadrate
  74. 4 unequally sized lobes
    1) left
    2) right
    3) caudate
    4) quadrate
    liver made up of...
  75. liver lobule
    organ's basic functional unit
  76. organ's basic functional unit
    liver lobule
  77. how is blood supplied to the liver lobules?
    by branches of the hepatic artery & hepatic portal vein.
  78. by branches of the hepatic artery & hepatic portal vein.
    how is blood supplied to the liver lobules?
  79. list some specific major functions of the liver?
    • 1) metabolic regulation
    • 2) hematological regulation
    • 3) production of bile
  80. 1) metabolic regulation
    2) hematological regulation
    3) production of bile
    list some specific major functions of the liver?
  81. gallbladder
    stores & concentrates bile for release into the duodenum
  82. stores & concentrates bile for release into the duodenum
    gallbladder
  83. what permits bile to enter the duodenum?
    relaxation of the hepatopncreatic sphincter by CCK
  84. relaxation of the hepatopncreatic sphincter by CCK
    what permits bile to enter the duodenum?
  85. main functions of the large intestines
    • 1) reabsorb H2O & compact feces
    • 2) absorb vitamins made by bacteria
    • 3) store fecal material prior to defication
  86. 1) reabsorb H2O & compact feces
    2) absorb vitamins made by bacteria
    3) store fecal material prior to defication
    main functions of the large intestines
  87. parts of the large intestine
    • 1) cecum
    • 2) colon
    • 3) rectum
  88. 1) cecum
    2) colon
    3) rectum
    parts of the large intestine
  89. cecum
    collects & stores material from the ileum & begins the process of compaction
  90. collects & stores material from the ileum & begins the process of compaction
    cecum
  91. colon
    • 1) larger diameter & thinner wall than the small intestine
    • 2) bears haustra (pouches) & taeniae coli (longitudinal bands of muscle)
  92. 1) larger diameter & thinner wall than the small intestine
    2) bears haustra (pouches) & taeniae coli (longitudinal bands of muscle)
    colon
  93. rectum
    terminates in the anal canal, wh/ leads to the anus
  94. terminates in the anal canal, wh/ leads to the anus
    rectum
  95. The sodium potassium exchange pump maintains a gradient of sodium & postassium ions across the cell membrane. What is more concentrated inside the cell?
    Potasium
  96. Potasium
    The sodium potassium exchange pump maintains a gradient of sodium & postassium ions across the cell membrane. What is more concentrated inside the cell?
  97. The sodium potassium exchange pump maintains a gradient of sodium & postassium ions across the cell membrane. What is more concentrated outside the cell?
    sodium
  98. sodium
    The sodium potassium exchange pump maintains a gradient of sodium & postassium ions across the cell membrane. What is more concentrated outside the cell?
  99. For each ATP molecule consumed by a Sodium-Potassium exchange pump, what & how many molecules are pumped out(ejected) & what & how many molecules are pumped in(reclaimed)?
    3 sodium ions ejected & 2 potassium ions reclaimed
  100. 3 sodium ions ejected & 2 potassium ions reclaimed
    • For each ATP molecule consumed by a Sodium-Potassium exchange pump, what & how many molecules are pumped out(ejected) & what & how
    • many molecules are pumped in(reclaimed)?

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview