Bio Lab Chap. 1-2

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Bio Lab Chap. 1-2
2011-06-12 18:44:21

Chapter 1
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  1. Scientific Method
    • 1. Make observations
    • 2. Ask questions
    • 3. Propose Answers
    • 4. Test hypothesis
    • 5. Accept or reject hypothesis
    • 6. Repeat the test
  2. Hypothesis
    And educated guess
  3. Independent variable
    thing that can be changed or manipulated by researcher
  4. Dependent variable
    • the observed outcome of the test
    • Depends on the independent variable
  5. Control variable
    All other variables that must remain constant during the test
  6. Two groups in experiment
    • 1. control group
    • 2. experimental group- independent variable given only to this group
  7. Prediction
    • Formulated from hypothesis
    • Written in an "if-then" statement
  8. Null hypothesis
    states that the treatment has no effect on the outcome of the experiment
  9. Beaker
    cylinder shaped device that is short and stubby
  10. Erlenmeyer flask
    • Taller, funnel like device
    • Easy to swirl
  11. Graduated cylinders
    taller, cylindrical shaped device
  12. Pipette
    skinny tube to draw 1 mL of liquid usually- most precise
  13. Base Units
    • Meters m distance
    • Liters L volume
    • Grams g mass
  14. Metric system
    • King Henry Died By Drinking Chocolate Milk
    • kilo- 10^3
    • Hecto-10^2
    • Deka- 10^1
    • Base
    • Deci- 10^-1
    • Centi-10^-2
    • Milli- 10^-3
  15. Magnification
    • Tells how much larger the object appears under the scope than it actually is
    • Ocular (10x) x objective
  16. Field of view
    The circular field you see when you look through the ocular
  17. Depth of focus
    the thickness of an object that is all in sharp focus at the same time
  18. Working distance
    • space between the slide and objective
    • More space=less magnification
  19. Compound light microscope
    Typical microscope
  20. ocular
    Lense nearest he eye
  21. Body Tube
    Keeps ocular and ovjective lenses at proper distance from each other
  22. Nosepiece
    Permits interchange of low, medium, and high power objectives
  23. Pointer
    Found in ocular, can be moved by turning the black eyepiece
  24. Arm
    Supports body tube and adjustment knobs
  25. Objectives
    Contains lenses of various magnification
  26. Course adjustment
    Changes the distance between the slide and the objective to focus an image
  27. Fine adjustment
    Permits exact focusing
  28. Base
    Bears the weight of microscope
  29. Stage
    Supports slides
  30. Stage clps
    Hold slide steady
  31. Iris diaphrahm
    Regulates amount of light going through specimen
  32. Illuminator
    Provides light source
  33. Stereomicroscope
    • Has two oculars
    • Thick, opaque objects can be viewed with this microscope
  34. Teaching scope
    Has two oculars so two people can look at the same thing at the same time
  35. Phase-contrast microscope
    • uses light rays for illumination by filtering out certain rays
    • Can ovserve live material
  36. Transmission electron microscope
    Can increase magnification by passing electrons, rather than light rays, through the specimen
  37. Scanning electron microscope
    Uses a moving beam of electrons to bounce the electrons off the specimen