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Which of the following best explains what type of reason to believe is of greatest concern or interest to philosophers?
Epistemic reasons appeal to evidence or rational justification that makes it more likely the belief is true. The goal is having true beliefs, or at least increased understanding of what is likely to be true.
Point out how the arguer’s character, background, or other personal traits or circumstances are not relevant to whether or not the argument has true premises and good inferences.
Substitute in the same synonym or definition for every occurrence of a word or phrase.
Show how the arguer has distorted the opponent’s original argument from what was really said or meant.
ad Hominem circumstantial
B dismisses A’s argument because of A’s motivation, background, or other circumstances that led A to make the argument.
ad Hominem tu quoque
B rejects A’s argument because B claims A is being hypocritical in making it.
appeal to unqualified authority
the argument depends on an untrustworthy source of facts or opinions (or at least a source that has no special expertise on the point in question)
the argument gets off topic and brings in irrelevant issues
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