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For Aristotle, "virtue" is excellence, which for humans means:
finding the appropriate mean between the extremes in the range of possible responses.
Aristotle believes that pleasures:
sometimes come from things that are not naturally pleasant, which leads to internal conflicts in trying to lead a good life.
"Eudaimonia" refers to Aristotle's conception of:
a durable form of happiness, as rational activity of the soul in accordance with virtue.
One way in which Aristotle and Bentham disagree about the foundations of morality is that:
Aristotle is primarily concerned with the character of the person acting and Bentham is primarily concerned with the consequences of the action.
The Principle of Utility:
"approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever, according to the tendency which it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question."
Bentham’s procedure for calculating utility (the hedonic calculus):
adds up the values of immediate and resulting pleasures and pains for all people affected.
Which of the following is true about the circumstances of a pleasure, according to Bentham?
Its fecundity is its ability to produce more pleasures, and its purity is the degree to which it produces only pleasures and not pains.