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Sartre denies that existentialism “confin[es] man within his individual subjectivity” (that is, that existentialism implies some form of truth relativism) by appealing to the cogito, arguing that:
the self-awareness required by the cogito comes about through awareness of the look of the other.
The “Not Up To Me” Argument essentially claims that:
in order to be free in a deterministic world, one would have to change either prior states of the world or laws of nature, so free will and determinism are incompatible.
Determinism is the theory that:
only one continuation of the state of things at a given moment is consistent with the laws of nature.
What is the Randomness Problem?
An act that occurs by chance or accident does not seem to be freely willed in any important sense, so free will seems to require some causal laws for human behavior.
What, according to Ayer, is the relationship between free will and moral responsibility?
Free will is a necessary condition or requirement for moral responsibility. The idea is that you cannot have moral responsibility unless you are capable of having acted otherwise than you did. See Ayer, 662a.
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