World Civ Imperialism

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World Civ Imperialism
2011-05-24 20:48:00
World Civ Imperialism

World Civ Imperialism
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  1. Shaka
    A Zulu chief who used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a large centralized state. His successors, however, were unable to keep the kingdom together and the Zulu nation fell to British control in 1887.
  2. Boer
    Dutch settlers who took Africans’ land and established large farms. They clashed with the British when they took over the Cape Colony permanently. The Dutch went to war against the British in the Boer War. Britain won the war and the Boer republics were joined into a self-governing Union of South Africa, which was controlled by the British.
  3. Cecil Rhodes
    A successful businessman and a major supporter of British expansion. Thought that the more of the world they inhabit, the better it is for the human race.
  4. David Livingstone
    A missionary from Scotland who traveled with a group of Africans deep into central Africa to promote Christianity. Several years passed with no word from him and many people feared he was dead. An American newspaper hired report Henry Stanley to find Livingstone, and he was found on the shores of Lake Tanganyika.
  5. Menelik II
    Ethiopia was the only African nation that successfully resisted the Europeans. Ethiopia’s victory was due to one man –Menelik. Menelik II became emperor of Ethiopia in 1889. He successfully played Italians, French, and British against each other, all of whom were striving to bring Ethiopia into their spheres of influence. He worked on building up a large arsenal of modern weapons purchased from France and Russia. He signed a treaty with Italy, but discovered a discrepancy in the treaty and went to war against the Italians in the Battle of Adowa. Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and kept their nation independent.
  6. Sepoys
    Indian soldiers that were led by British officers. They took part in the Sepoy Mutiny in which the sepoys rebelled against the British. They captured the city of Delhi. The East India Company took more than a year to regain control of the country.
  7. Imperialism
    A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially.
  8. Racism
    The belief that one race is superior to others.
  9. Social Darwinism
    The application of Charles Darwin’s ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as justification for imperialist expansion.
  10. Berlin Conference
    A meeting in 1884–1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed upon rules for the European colonization of Africa.
  11. Boer War
    A conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa.
  12. Paternalism
    A policy of treating subject people as if they were children, providing for their needs but not giving them rights.
  13. Assimilation
    The adoption of a conqueror’s culture by a conquered people. Or a policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs.
  14. Colony
    A land controlled by another nation.
  15. Protectorate
    A country or a territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power.
  16. Sphere of influence
    A foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.
  17. Mandate
    Certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another.
  18. “Jewel of the crown”
    Britain considered India the “Jewel of the Crown” because it was considered the most valuable of all of Britain colonies. India was a major supplier of raw materials for Britain’s workshops. India had 300 million people who were also a large potential market for British made goods.
  19. Sepoy Mutiny
    An 1847 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India.
  20. Raj
    The British-controlled portions of India in the years 1757-1947.
  21. British East India Co.
    The leading power in India. Eventually, it governed directly or indirectly an area that included modern Bangladesh, most of southern India, and nearly all the territory along the Ganges River in the north. Until the beginning of the 19th century, the company ruled India with litter interference from the British government. The company even had its own army, led by British officers and staffed by Indian soldiers.
  22. Opium War
    A conflict between Britain and China, lasting from 1839 to 1842, over Britain’s opium trade in China after Britain refused to stop trading opium.
  23. Extraterritorial rights
    An exemption of foreign residents from the laws of a country.
  24. Taiping Rebellion
    A mid-19th century rebellion against the Qing Dynasty in China. It was a movement for a kingdom in which all Chinese people would share China’s vast wealth and no one would live in poverty.
  25. Open Door Policy
    This idea proposed that China’s “doors” be open to merchants of all nations. This protected China’s freedom from colonization.
  26. Boxer Rebellion
    A 1900 revolt in China, aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
  27. Qing Dynasty
    China’s last dynasty. Got China into the Opium War and was in power during various revolutions such as the Taiping Rebellion and Boxer Rebellion. Very corrupt and faced many problems at the time of imperialism. The Dowager Empress Cixi was the one person in command at the Qing imperial palace during the last half of the 19th century. She was committed to traditional values, but she did support certain reforms. A group of officials was sent on a world tour to study the operation of different governments. The officials recommended that they base their government on the constitutional monarchy of Japan. However, change was slow.
  28. Motives of Imperialism
    The causes of imperialism were social Darwinism, nationalism, economic expansion, and religious and humanitarian reasons. The theory of Social Darwinism was that those who were fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success and were considered superior to others. According to the theory, non-Europeans were considered to be on a lower scale of cultural and physical development because they had not made the scientific and technological progress that Europeans had. Europeans believed that they had the right and the duty to bring the results of their progress to other countries. The push for expansion also came from missionaries who worked to convert the peoples of Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands to Christianity. Many missionaries believed that European rule was the best way to end evil practices such as the slave trade. Furthermore, economic expansion pushed the Europeans toward imperialism. European nations wanted more resources to fuel their industrial production. Africa was a great source of raw materials and a market for industrial products. Africa contained rich mineral resources, such as the Belgian Congo which contained untold wealth in copper and tin. And there was even more wealth in gold and diamonds in South Africa. And, finally, the Europeans felt a sense of nationalism. The Europeans considered non-Europeans to be on a lower scale of cultural and physical development because they hadn’t made the scientific and technological progress the Europeans had. The Europeans felt they had the right and duty to bring the results of their progress to other countries.
  29. Positive and Negative effects of imperialism
    Most of the positive effects of imperialism were benefited by the Europeans.

    • Negative side:
    • Africans lost control of their land and their independence.
    • Many died of new diseases, such as smallpox.
    • They lost thousands of their people in resisting the Europeans.
    • Famines resulted form the change to cash crops in place of subsistence agriculture.
    • The division of the African continent. Sometimes, long-term rival tribes were united, while other times, kinship groups were split between colonies. The artificial boundaries combined or unnaturally divided groups, creating problems that plagued African colonies. The Europeans put in no regard on how to split up the African colonies.

    • Positive side:
    • Colonialism reduced local warfare.
    • Humanitarian efforts in some colonies improved sanitation and provided hospitals and schools, increasing lifespans and improving literacy rates.
    • Economic expansion, but, for the most part, this benefited only European business interests, not Africans’ lives.
  30. Africa before imperialism
    Before imperialism, African peoples were divided into hundreds of ethnic and linguistic groups. Most continued to follow traditional beliefs, while others converted to Islam or Christianity. Powerful African armies were able to keep the Europeans out of most of Africa for 400 years. Furthermore, European travel into the interior on a large-scale basis was virtually impossible. Europeans could not navigate African rivers, which had many rapids, cataracts, and changing flows. The introduction of steam-powered riverboats in the early 1800s allowed Europeans to conduct major expeditions into the interior of Africa. Finally, Africans controlled their own trade networks and provided the trade items.
  31. Types of imperial control
    The types of imperial control are in the form of a colony, protectorate, sphere of influence and economic imperialism. A colony is a country or a territory governed internally bya foreign power. A protectorate is a country or a territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power. A sphere of influence is an area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges, such as China during this time. And economic imperialism is an independent by less- eveloped country controlled by private business interests rather than other governments. An example of economic imperialism is the Dole Fruit company controlling pineapple trade in Hawaii.
  32. Difference between direct and indirect management
    In direct control, foreign officials are brought in to rule, and there is no self-rule. The goal is assimilation, which is for the country to adopt the culture and become like the people who are controlling them. And the government institutions are based only on European styles. In indirect control, local government officials are used and they have limited self-rule. The goal is to develop future leaders. The government institutions are based on European styles but may have local rules.
  33. Impact of colonialism in India
    India both benefited from and war harmed by British colonialism. On the negative side, the British held much of the political and economic power. The British restricted Indian-owned industries such as cotton textiles. The emphasis on cash crops resulted in a loss of self-sufficiency for many villagers. The conversion to cash crops reduced food production, causing famines in the late 1800s. The increased presence of missionaries and the racist attitude of most British officials threatened traditional Indian life. On the positive side, the laying of the world’s third largest railroad network was a major British achievement. When completed, the railroads enabled India to develop a modern economy and brought unity to the connected regions. Along with the railroads, a modern road network, telephone and telegraph lines, dams, bridges, and irrigation canals enabled India to modernize. Sanitation and public health improved. Schools and colleges were founded, and literacy increased. Also, British troops cleared central India of bandits and put an end to local warfare among competing local rulers.
  34. Growth of nationalism in India
    Nationalist feelings started to surface in India. Indians hated a system that made them second-class citizens in their own country. They were barred from top posts in the Indian Civil Service. Those who managed to get middle-level jobs were paid less than Europeans. A British engineer on the East India Railway, for example, made nearly 20 times as much money as an Indian engineer. This growing nationalism led to the founding of two nationalist groups, the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League. At first, such groups concentrated on specific concerns for Indians, however, by the early 1900s they were calling for self-government. Conflict over the control of India continued to develop between the Indians and the British in the following years.
  35. Internal problems in China
    China faced many problems at this time. The country’s population provided an overwhelming challenge. The number of Chinese grew by a 30 percent gain in only 60 years, while the food production barely increased. As a result, hunger was widespread, even in good years. Many people became discouraged, and opium addiction rose steadily, which was introduced by the British despite the negative effects which were known by the British and our government trying to stop it. As their problems mounted, the Chinese began to rebel against the Qing Dynasty, as in the Taiping Rebellion and Boxer Rebellion.
  36. Growth of Chinese nationalism
    Many Chinese pressed for strong reforms. China’s young emperor introduced measures to modernize China. However, most Qing officials saw these innovations as threats to their power and he was placed under arrest and all his reforms were reversed. The Chinese people’s frustration with their situation continued to grow, and finally erupted into violence during the Boxer Rebellion. The Boxer Rebellion was a failure, however, a strong sense of nationalism had emerged in China. The Chinese people realized that their country must resist more foreign intervention. Even more important, they felt that the government must become responsive to their needs