World Civ WWI

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  1. Nationalism
    a deep devotion to one’s nation.
  2. Militarism
    The policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war.
  3. Alliances
    An alliance is an agreement between two or more countries to cooperate for a specific purpose. Growing rivalries and mutual mistrust had led to the creation of several military alliances among the Great Powers.
  4. Imperialism
    A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate less powerful countries politically, economically orsocially. The nations of Europe competed fiercely for colonies in Africa and Asia. As European countries continued to compete for overseas empires, their sense of rivalry and mistrust of one another deepened.
  5. Triple Entente
    An alliance formed among Britain, France, and Russia. It did not bind Britain to fight with France and Russia. However, it did almost certainly ensure that Britain would not fight against them
  6. Triple Alliance
    An alliance formed among Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.
  7. No Man’s Land
    The space between the opposing trenches. When the officers ordered an attack, their men went over the top of their trenches into this bombed-out landscape. There, they usually met murderous rounds of machine-gun fire.
  8. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    Ended the war between Germany and Russia.
  9. League of Nations
    An international association whose goal would be to keep peace among nations. The League of Nations was created as a result of the Treaty of Versailles, adopting Wilson’s fourteenth point.
  10. Eastern Front
    A stretch of battlefield along the German and Russian border. Here, Russians and Serbs battled Germans and Austro-Hungarians. The war in the east was a more mobile war than that in the west. Here too, however, slaughter and stalemate were common.
  11. Western Front
    The deadlocked region in northern France.
  12. Treaty of Versailles
    A treaty signed between Germany and the Allied powers signed five years to the day after Franz Ferdinand’s assassination in Sarajevo. This was the final compromise the nations came to, creating a peace agreement.
  13. Zimmermann Telegraph
    Officials intercepted a telegram written by Germany’s foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmermann, stating that Germany would help Mexico reconquer the land it had lost to the United States if Mexico would ally itself with Germany. After the Zimmermann note, President Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany. The United States entered the war on the side of the Allies.
  14. Schlieffen Plan
    Germany’s plan to attack and defeat France in the west and then rush east to fight Russia. However, this plan did not prevail. The plan called for going through Belgium to get to Paris, but, Belgium held off. This gave France time to gather troops. The Allies regrouped and attacked the Germans northeast of Paris. After four days of fighting, the German generals gave the order to retreat. In the east, Russian forces had already invaded Germany.
  15. Trench warfare
    Soldiers fought each other from trenches. Armies traded huge losses of human life for pitifully small land gains.
  16. Mandate
    Territories administered by the League of Nations. Under the peace agreement created after WWI, the Allies would govern the mandates until they were judged ready for independence.
  17. Ultimatum
    A final, uncompromising demand or set of terms issued by a party to a dispute. Austria presented Serbia with an ultimatum containing numerous demands. Serbia knew that refusing the ultimatum would lead to war against the more powerful Austria. Therefore, Serbian leaders agreed to most of Austria’s demands. They offered to have several others settled by an international conference. Austria rejected Serbia’s offer and declared war, starting World War I.
  18. Reparation
    Compensation in money, paid by a defeated country to another country for loss suffered during or as a result of war. Germany had to pay reparations to the Allies, because sole responsibility was placed on Germany for starting WWI.
  19. Propaganda
    One-sided information, used by governments, designed to persuade the people of a country to keep up morale and support for the war.
  20. Black Hand
    A secret society in Serbian committed to ridding Bosnia of Austrian rule. Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were killed as they visited the capital of Bosnia by a member of the Black Hand.
  21. Allies
    Consisted of Great Britain, France, and Russia. Japan joined the Allies within weeks, and Italy joined later. Italy had been a member of the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary. However, the Italians joined the other side after accusing their former partners of unjustly starting the war.
  22. Central Powers
    The other side of the war, which consisted of Germany and Austria-Hungary. They were known as the Central Powers because of their location in the heart of Europe. Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire would later join the Central Powers in the hopes of regaining lost territories.
  23. Stalemate
    Any position or situation in which no action can be taken or progress made. Long and bloody stalemates, or deadlocks, occurred on both the Eastern and Western Front.
  24. Total war
    Countries devoted all their resources to the war effort. In each country, the wartime government took control of the economy. Governments told factories what to produce and how much. Unemployment in many European countries almost disappeared. Countries started rationing and using propaganda.
  25. Fourteen Points
    Outlined a plan for achieving a just and lasting peace. The first four points included an end to secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, and reduced national armies and navies. The fifth goal was the adjustment of colonial claims with fairness toward colonial peoples. The sixth through thirteenth points were specific suggestions for changing borders and creating new nations.
  26. Armistice
    An agreement to stop fighting. An armistice ended World War I on November 11th 1918.
  27. Lusitania
    A British passenger ship that a German submarine had sunk. The American public was outraged, and after two further attacks, the Germans finally agreed to stop attacking neutral and passenger ships, ending their unrestricted submarine warfare. However, the Germans would later return to using unrestricted submarine warfare.
  28. Aircraft
    Started off using airplanes to scout out an area. The plane itself was relatively new and untested, at the beginning of the Great War, but, the warring nations quickly recognized its potential as a powerful weapon. Throughout the conflict, countries on both sides built fasterand stronger aircraft, and designed them to drop bombs and shoot at one another in the sky. After the war, countries continued to maintain a strong and advanced airforce, as they realized that supremacy of the air was a key to military victory.
  29. Heavy artillery guns
    Artillery was divided into light and heavy, depending on the weight of solid shot fired. Heavy guns were 8–12 pounds.
  30. Poison gas
    Soldiers wore masks to protect themselves from poison gas. Gas was introduced by the Germans but used by both sides. Some gases caused blindness or severe listers, others death by choking.
  31. Machine guns
    Fires ammunition automatically and was much improved by the time of World War I. The gun could wipe out waves of attackers and thus made it difficult for forces to advance.
  32. Submarines
    The Germans introduced the submarine as an effective warship. The submarine’s primary weapon against ships was the torpedo, an underwater missile.
  33. Dogfights
    Dogfights were fights between planes in the air. Dogfights became a large part of WWI, because planes had been invented shortly before WWI started.
  34. Tanks
    An armored combat vehicle that moved on chaintracks – and thus could cross many types of terrain. It was introduced by the British at the Battle of the Somme.
  35. Hand grenades
    Early in World War I, both sides only had small grenades of a pre-war design. These were replaced when manufactured versions such as the Mills bomb, the first modern fragmentation grenade, became available to British front-line troops.
  36. Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    The heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. He visited Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia, with his wife, Sophie. He and his wife were shot as they rode through the streets of Sarajevo in an open car by a Black Hand member.
  37. Woodrow Wilson
    Declared war on Germany during WWI. Wilson was also the representative from the United States during the peace conferences after World War I. During the war he came up with the Fourteen Points, and the fourteenth point was adopted, creating a League of Nations.
  38. Lloyd George
    The representative from Great Britain who attended the peace conferences.
  39. Gavrilo Princip
    A 19-year-old Serbian and member of the Black Hand who killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife while they visited the capital of Bosnia.
  40. Clemenceau
    The French representative to meet at the peace conferences after WWI.
  41. Red Baron
    Baron Manfred von Richthofen was a fighter pilot during WWI. He was credited with 80 victories, shoot down plane after plane. He liked to fly in a blazing red airplane, getting the name the Red Baron. His achievements made him both a hero and a propaganda tool.
  42. Kaiser Wilhelm II
    The ruler of Germany. He forced Bismarck to resign.
  43. Orlando
    The Italian representative during peace conferences after WWI.
  44. Rickenbacker
    An American fighter ace in WWI and Medal of Honor recipient.
  45. Miracle of the Marne (1st Marne)
    The defeat of the Germans left the Schlieffen Plan in ruins. A quick victory in the west no longer seemed possible. In the east, Russian forces had already invaded Germany. Germany was going to have to fight a long war on two fronts.
  46. Verdun
    Germans launched a massive attack against the French near Verdun. Each side lost more than 300,000 men. The British army tried to relieve the pressure on the French and attacked the Germans northwest of Verdun, in the valley of the Somme River.
  47. Somme
    Bloodiest one day battle. The British used the tank for the first time. British gained five miles, while each side suffered more than half a million casualties.
  48. Gallipoli
    The effort to take the Dardanelles strait. A promising strategy for the Allies seemed to be to attack a region in the Ottoman Empire known as the Dardanelles. This narrow sea strait was the gateway to the Ottoman capital, Constantinople. By securing the Dardanelles, the Allies believed that they could take Constantinople, defeat the Turks, and establish a supply line to Russia. British, Australian, New Zealand, and French troops made repeated assaults on the Gallipoli Peninsula on the western side of the strait. Within three months, Gallipoli had turned into another bloody stalemate. The Allies gave up the campaign and began to evacuate. They had suffered about 250,000 casualties.
  49. Know the difference between the Treaty of Versailles and Fourteen Points
    The Treaty of Versailles was the peace treaty signed after WWI between Germany and the Allies. The Fourteen Points was a series of proposals in which Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving lasting peace after WWI. The Treaty of Versailles was an actual peace treaty. The Fourteen Points was a suggested plan that wasn’t even fully used. The fourteenth point was adopted by the treaty, creating a League of Nations.
  50. How did each of the four causes contribute to ultimate war?
    Nationalism caused intense competition among nations, with each seeking to overpower the other. By the turn of the 20th century, a fierce rivalry had developed among Europe’s Great Powers. Another force was imperialism. The nations of Europe were competing fiercely for colonies in Africa and Asia. The quest for colonies sometimes pushed European nations to the brink of war. As European countries continued to compete for overseas empires, their sense of rivalry and mistrust of one another deepened. Another cause was militarism. The nations of Europe believed that to be truly great, they needed to have a powerful military. By 1914, all the Great Powers except Britain had large standing armies. In addition, military experts stressed the importance of being able to quickly mobilize, or organize and move troops in case of a war. Finally, was all the alliances formed. Growing rivalries and mutual mistrust had led to the creation of several military alliances among the Great Powers. This alliance system had been designed to keep peace in Europe. But it would instead help push the continent into war. By 1907, two rival camps existed in Europe. On one side was the Tripe Alliance, and the other was the Triple Entente. A dispute between two rival powers could draw all the nations of Europe into war.
  51. How did weapons affect the length and type of war?
    The new tools of war had no delivered the fast-moving war they had expected. All this new technology did was kill greater numbers of people more effectively. The length was not really affected. The weapons helped create a defensive battle fought in the trenches.
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World Civ WWI
2011-05-25 01:36:23
World Civ WWI

World Civ WWI
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