World Civ WWII

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World Civ WWII
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World Civ WWII
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  1. Benito Mussolini
    Mussolini was a Fascist leader that took power after widespread violence and a threatened uprising. He abolished democracy and outlawed all political parties except the Fascists. Secret police jailed his opponents. Government censors forced radio stations and publications to broadcast or publish only Fascist doctrines. Mussolini outlawed strikes. He sought to control the economy by allying the Fascists with the industrialists and large landowners.
  2. Adolf Hitler
    Hitler had great success as an organizer and speaker, which led him to be chosen as the leader of the Nazi party. Inspired by Mussolini’s march on Rome, Hitler and the Nazis plotted to seize power in Munich in 1923. The attempt failed and Hitler was arrested. He was tried to treason but was sentenced to only five years in prison. He served less than nine months. After leaving prison, Hitler revived the Nazi Party. Most Germans ignored him and his angry message until the Great Depression ended the nation’s brief postwar recovery. When American loans stopped, the German economy collapsed. Civil unrest broke out and frightened and confused Germans now turned to Hitler, hoping for security and firm leadership. He turned Germany into a totalitarian state. Hitler wanted economic and political power as well as control over every aspect of German life, turning to propaganda.
  3. Francisco Franco
    A General in Spain. Army leaders who favored a Fascist-style government joined Franco in a revolt. Thus began a civil war that dragged on for three years. Hitler and Mussolini sent troops, tanks, and airplanes to help Franco’s forces. The armed forces of the Republicans received little help from abroad and the Republican resistance collapsed. Franco became Spain’s Fascist dictator.
  4. Mao Zedong
    China’s communist leader who led Chinese guerrillas who continued to fight the Japanese in the conquered area, even though China’s army was being forced to retreat from the Japanese.
  5. Jiang Jieshi
    China’s extremely large army was led by Jiang Jieshi when the Japanese invaded China. However, China’s army was no match for the better equipped and trained Japanese. Japanese troops were forced to retreat westward, and Jiang Jieshi set up a new capital at Chongqing.
  6. Charles de Gaulle
    A French general who set up a government-in-exile in London. He committed all his energy to reconquering France. He went on to organize the Free French military forces that battled the Nazis until France was liberated in 1944.
  7. Winston Churchill
    The British prime minister when Great Britain stood alone against the Nazis. He declared that his nation would never give in. Hitler turned his mind to an invasion of Great Britain in the Battle of Britain, and, under Churchill’s rule, the British were able to resist Hitler.
  8. Chamberlain
    The British prime minister who believed that he could preserve peace by giving in to Hitler’s demand. Britain and France agreed that Hitler could take the Sudetenland. In exchange, Hitler pledged to respect Czechoslovakia’s new borders. When Chamberlain returned to London, he told cheering crowds that it would be peace for their time. However, Chamberlain could not have been more wrong.
  9. Erwin Rommel
    Mussolini attacked British-controlled Egypt. Egypt’s Suez Canal was key to reaching the oil fields of the Middle East. Within a week, Italian troops had pushed 60 miles inside Egypt, forcing British units back. Then both sides dug in and waited. The British struck back and Hitler sent a German tank force under the command of General Erwin Rommel to reinforce the Italians. For a while it went back and forth until Rommel pushed the British back across the desert, and seized Tobruk – a shattering loss for the Allies.
  10. Yamamoto
    Japan’s greatest naval strategist who called for an attack on the U.S. fleet in Hawaii. He called for Pearl Harbor.
  11. MacArthur
    The commander of the Allied land forces in the Pacific. He developed a plan to handle the problem that the war in the Pacific involved vast distances and Japanese troops had dug in on hundreds of islands across the ocean. He believed that storming each island would be a long, costly effort. Instead, he wanted to “island-hop” past Japanese strongholds. He would then seize islands that were not well defended but were closer to Japan.
  12. Eisenhower
    American general that led the Allied force of more than 100,000 troops that landed in Morocco and Algeria during Operation Torch. Caught between Montgomery’s and Eisenhower’s armies, Rommel’s Afrika Korps was finally crushed in May 1943.
  13. Hirohito
    The Emperor of Japan. The militarists made the emperor the symbol of state power. Keeping Hirohito as head of state won popular support for the army leaders who ruled in his name.
  14. Weimar Republic
    Germany’s democratic government set up in 1919. It was named after the city where the national assembly met. The Weimar Republic had serious weaknesses from the start. First, Germany lacked a strong democratic tradition. Furthermore, postwar Germany had several major political parties and many minor ones. Worst of all, millions of Germans blamed the Weimar government, not their wartime leaders, for the country’s defeat and postwar humiliation caused by the Versailles treaty.
  15. Fascism
    A new militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. Unlike communism, fascism had no clearly defined theory or program. Nevertheless, most Fascists shared several ideas. They preached an extreme form of nationalism and believed that nations must struggle – peaceful states were doomed to be conquered. They pledged loyalty to an authoritarian leader who guided and brought order to the state.
  16. Nazism
    The German brand of fascism. They adopted the swastika, or hooked cross, as its symbol. This group shared the belief that Germany had to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism. The Nazis set up a private militia called the storm troopers or Brown Shirts.
  17. Mein Kampf
    My Struggle. Hitler wrote this book while in jail. This book set forth his beliefs and his goals for Germany. Hitler asserted that the Germans, whom he incorrectly called “Aryans,” were a “master race.” He declared that non-Aryan “races,” such as Jews, Slavs, and Gypsies, were inferior. He called the Versailles Treaty an outrage and vowed to regain German lands. Hitler also declared that Germany was overcrowded and needed more living space. He promised to get that space by conquering Eastern Europe and Russia.
  18. Lebensraum
    Living space. Hitler thought that Germany was overcrowded and need more lebensraum.
  19. Anschluss
    A union between Austria and Germany. The Treaty of Versailles prohibited Anschluss, yet Hitler announced to his advisers his plans to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich, or German Empire. This was prohibited, however, many Austrians support unity with Germany. In March 1938, Hitler sent his army into Austria and annexed it.
  20. Fuhrer
    The leader of Germany. This was the title given to Hitler when he took control of Germany.
  21. SS
    Schutzstaffel, or protection squad. It was an elite, black uniformed unit that was created to be loyal only to Hitler. In 1934, the SS arrested and murdered hundreds of Hitler’s enemies. This brutal action and terror applied by the Gestapo, the Nazi secret police, shocked most Germans into total obedience.
  22. Atlantic Charter
    A joint declaration issued by Roosevelt and Churchill. The U.S. had not yet entered the war, but they met secretly and issued this joint declaration. It upheld freetrade among nations and the right of people to choose their own government. The charter later served as the Allies’ peace plan at the end of World War II.
  23. Appeasement
    Giving in to an aggressor to keep peace. This policy was greatly urged by the British; however, it definitely proved to have been a bad idea.
  24. Axis Powers
    Germany, Italy, and Japan.
  25. Battle of Britain
    Hitler’s invasion of Great Britain. The Luftwaffe, Germany’s air force, began bombing Great Britain. The Royal Air Force, RAF, although badly outnumbered, began to hit back hard. Stunned by British resistance, Hitler decided to call of his attacks.
  26. Pearl Harbor
    The Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Within two hours, the Japanese had sunk or damaged 19 ships. More than 2,300 Americans were killed, with over 1,100 wounded. This attack led to a declaration of war on Japan and its allies.
  27. Battle of Guadalcanal
    U.S. military leaders had learned that the Japanese were building a huge air base on the island of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. The Allies had to strike fast before the base was completed and became another Japanese stronghold. Several thousand U.S. Marines, with Australian support, landed on Guadalcanal and the neighboring island of Tulagi. The marines had little trouble seizing Guadalcanal’s airfield. But the battle for control of the island turned into a savage struggle as both sides poured in fresh troops. After six months of fighting on land and at sea, the battle finally ended. The Japanese abandoned the island.
  28. Holocaust
    The systematic mass slaughter of Jews and other groups judged inferior by the Nazis.
  29. Final Solution
    Hitler soon grew impatient waiting for Jews to die from starvation or disease. He decided to take more direction action. His plan was called the Final Solution. It was actually a program of genocide. Hitler believed that his plan of conquest depended on the purity of the Aryan race. To protect racial purity, the Nazis had to eliminate other races, nationalities, or groups they viewed as inferior.
  30. Genocide
    The systematic killing of an entire people.
  31. Battle of Coral Sea
    Both sides, the Japanese and Allies, used a new kind of naval warfare. The opposing ships did not fire a single shot. In fact, they often could not see one another. Instead, airplanes taking off from huge aircraft carriers attacked the ships. The Allies suffered more losses in ships and troops than did the Japanese. However, the Battle of the Coral Sea was something of a victory, for the Allies had stopped Japan’s southward advance.
  32. D-Day
    The invasion of Normandy, which was the largest land and sea attack in history, code-named Operation Overlord. At dawn on this day, British, American, French, and Canadian troops fought their way onto a 60-mile stretch of beach in Normandy. The Germans had dug in with machine guns, rocket launchers, and cannons. They sheltered behind concrete walls three feet thick. Not surprisingly, the Allies took heavy casualties. Despite heavy losses, the Allies held the beachheads. Within a month of D-Day, more than one million additional troops had landed. Then, the Allies punched a hole in the German defenses near Saint-Lo, and the U.S. Third Army broke out.A month later, the Allies marched triumphantly into Paris. By September, they had liberated France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. They then set their sights on Germany.
  33. Battle of the Bulge
    German tanks broke through weak American defenses along a 75-mile front in the Ardennes. The push into Allied lines gave the campaign its name – the Battle of the Bulge. Although caught off guard, the Allies eventually pushed the Germans back. The Germans had little choice but to retreat, since there were no reinforcements available.
  34. Kamikaze
    Japanese suicide pilots that would ink Allied ships by crash-diving their bomb-filled planes into them.
  35. Nuremburg Trials
    An international Military Tribunal representing 23 nations put Nazi war criminals on trial in Nuremberg, Germany. In the first of these Nuremberg Trials, 22 Nazi leaders were charged with waging a war of aggression. They were also accused of committing “crimes against humanity” – the murder of 11 million people.
  36. Demilitarization
    Disbanding the Japanese armed forces, to ensure that peace would prevail.
  37. Democratization
    The process of creating a government elected by the people.
  38. Why was the Weimer Republic so hated by the Germans?
    The Weimer Republic had serious weaknesses from the start. First, Germany lacked a strong democratic tradition. Furthermore, postwar Germany had several major political parties and many minor ones. Worst of all, millions of Germans blamed the Weimar government, not their wartime leaders, for the country’s defeat and postwar humiliation caused by the Versailles Treaty. Many Germans also questioned the value of their new democratic government because of the inflation that arose. People took wheelbarrows full of money to buy food, as a loaf of bread cost less than a mark to some 200 billion marks within 5 years.
  39. What political and economic reasons caused the Italians turn to Mussolini?
    Fascism’s rise in Italy was fueled by bitter disappointment over the failure to win large territorial gains at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Rising inflation and unemployment also contributed to widespread social unrest. To growing numbers of Italians, their democratic government seemed helpless to deal with the country’s problems. They wanted a leader who would take action.
  40. What were key ideas of Nazi ideology?
    This group shared the belief that Germany had to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism. They believed that Germans, whom were incorrectly called “Aryans,” were a “master race.” He declared that non-Aryan “races,” such as Jews, Slavs, and Gypsies were inferior. Hitler called the Versailles Treaty and outrage and vowed to regain German lands. They believed that Germany was overcrowded and needed more living space, which they would get by conquering eastern Europe and Russia.
  41. Why did Japan seek an empire?
    Militarists took control, keeping the emperor the symbol of state power. Japan’s militarists were extreme nationalists. They wanted to solve thecountry’s economic problems through foreign expansion. They planned a Pacific empire that included a conquered China. The empire would provide Japan with raw materials and markets for its goods. It would also give Japan room for its rising population.
  42. Why did the Spanish Civil War occur?
    Spain had been a monarchy until 1931, when a republic was declared. The government, run by liberals and Socialists, held office amid many crises. In July 1936, army leaders, favoring a Fascist-style government, joined General Francisco Franco in a revolt. Thus began a civil war that dragged on for three years. Hitler and Mussolini sent troops, tanks, and airplanes to help Franco’s forces. The armed forces of the Republicans, as supporters of Spain’s elected government were known, received little help from abroad. Republican resistance collapsed and Franco became Spain’s Fascist dictator.
  43. What policy did the U.S. follow in the 1930s?
    Isolationism. Many Americans supported this belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided. Isolationists argued that entry into WWI had been a costly error. Beginning in 1935, Congress passed three Neutrality Acts. These laws banned loans and the sale of arms to nations at war.
  44. What was the policy of appeasement?
    Appeasement was the policy of giving in to an aggressor to keep peace. This policy was urged many times, especially by the British. However, this policy proved to backfire on them. Hitler later admitted that he would have backed down if the French and British had challenged him.
  45. Why was the Soviet-Nazi non-aggression pact important?
    Britain and France asked the Soviet Union to join them in stopping Hitler’s aggression. As Stalin talked with Britain and France, he also bargained with Hitler. The two dictators reached an agreement. Once bitter enemies, Fascist Germany and Communist Russia now publicly pledged never to attack one another. On August 23, 1939, their leaders signed a nonaggression pact. As the Axis Powers moved unchecked at the end of the decade, war appeared inevitable.
  46. How did Germans violate the Treaty of Versailles?
    The Treaty of Versailles prohibited a union between Austria and Germany. However, many Austrians supported unity with Germany. Hitler sent his army into Austria and annexed it. They rebuilt their military. They also invaded the Rhineland, which was supposed to remain a demilitarized zone.
  47. Explain the fall of France.
    After reaching the French coast, the German forces swung north again and joined the German troops in Belgium. The Germans trapped the Allied forces around the northern French city of Lille. In one of the most heroic acts of the war, Great Britain set out to rescue the army. It sent a fleet of about 850 ships across the English Channel to Dunkirk. Following Dunkirk, resistance in France began to crumble. By June 14, the Germans had taken Paris. Accepting the inevitable, French leaders surrendered. The Germans took control of the northern part of the country. They left the southern part to a puppet government. After France fell, Charles de Gaulle, a French general, set up a government-in-exile in London.
  48. Explain the Battle of Britain.
    Hitler turned his sights to invading Great Britain. His plan was first to knock out the Royal Air Force (RAF). The Luftwaffe, Germany’s air force, began bombing Great Britain. Despite the destruction and loss of life, the British did not waver. The RAF, although badly outnumbered, began to hit back hard. The Battle of Britain continued until May 10, 1941. Stunned by British resistance, Hitler decided to call off his attacks. The Battle of Britain taught the Allies a crucial lesson. Hitler’s attacks could be blocked.
  49. Why did the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor and Midway Island?
    They hoped to catch the European colonial powers and the United States by surprise. So they planned massive attacks on British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia and on American outposts in the Pacific, at the same time. Japan’s naval strategist called Pearl Harbor “A dagger pointed at Japan’s throat” and thought it must be destroyed. Japan targeted Midway Island because it was the location of a key American airfield Admiral Yamamoto hoped that the attack on Midway would draw the whole of the U.S. Pacific Fleet from Pearl Harbor to defend the island.
  50. Why was island hopping important?
    MacArthur believed that storming each island would be a long, costly effort. Instead he wanted to “island- op” past Japanese strongholds. He would then seize islands that were not well defended but closer to Japan.
  51. Why was the Battle of Stalingrad important?
    90,000, out of an army of 330,000, German troops surrendered to the Soviets. Stalingrad’s defense had cost the Soviets over one million soldiers. The city was 99 percent destroyed. However, the Germans were now on the defensive, with the Soviets pushing them steadily westward.
  52. Explain the purpose of D-Day.
    The allies faced heavy losses, but they still held the beachheads. Within a month of D-Day, more than one million additional troops had landed. Then, on July 25, the Allies punched a hole in the German defenses near Saint-Lo, and the U.S. Third Army, led by General George Patton, broke out. A month later, the Allies marched triumphantly into Paris. By September, they had liberated France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Then they set their sights on Germany.
  53. Why was the atomic
    bomb dropped on Japan?
    President Truman’s advisers had informed him that an invasion of the Japanese homeland might cost the Allies half a million lives. Truman had to make a decision whether to use a powerful new weapon called the atomic bomb. President Truman warned the Japanese that if they did not surrender, they could expect a “rain of ruin from the air.”
  54. Three turning points in WWII and significance
    Midway, Stalingrad, and El Alamein were major turning points in WWII. The Battle of Stalingrad left the Germans on the defensive with the Soviets pushing the Nazis out of Russia and Eastern Europe. The Battle of Midway turned the tide of war in the Pacific so that the Allies took the offensive. At El Alamein, Rommel’s army had been beaten. The Allies crushed the Nazis at this battle.

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