semester exam study guide.txt

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deamon
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87617
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semester exam study guide.txt
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2011-05-24 22:04:09
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  1. what are the larggest arteries and veins in the body
    aorta, superior/inferior vena cava
  2. vessels that contain valves that prevent the backflow of blood
    veins
  3. most muscular and elastic blood vessels
    arteries
  4. connect arterioles with venules
    capillaries
  5. blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
    veins
  6. blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
    anteries
  7. have this walls containing only one layer of cells
    capillaries
  8. allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through to cells
    capillaries
  9. what are the 4 components of blood
    plasma, erythrocytes, thrombocytes, & leukocytes
  10. transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
    erythrocytes
  11. involved in clotting
    thrombocytes
  12. fights disease
    leukocytes
  13. condition occurs when the heart muscles do not beat adequately to supply the blood needs of the body
    congestive heart failure
  14. occurs when fatty plaques are deposited on the walls of arteries
    atherosclerosis
  15. occurs when there is an inadequate number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or both
    anemia
  16. occurs when a blockage in coronary arteries cuts off the blood supply to the heart
    myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  17. the ballooning out of an artery wall
    aneurysm
  18. the two phases of ventilation are
    inspiration and expiration
  19. what are the two main muscles of respiration and where are they located
    intercostal- ribs, diaphragm- below the lungs
  20. the diaphragm is a muscle that separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity. it can _1_ to increase the volume of the chest cavity and _2_ to decrease the volume of the chest cavity
    1. contract, 2. relax
  21. tiny hair like structures in the nasal cavity and trachea that help trap dirt and germs and push them toward the esophagus to be swallowed
    cilia
  22. tiny air sacs in the lungs where gass exchange takes place
    alveoli
  23. cavities in the skull. provide resonance for the voice
    sinus
  24. secretions that traps germs and dirt in the nasal passages
    mucus
  25. lines the inner surface of the alveoli- prevents alveoli collapse
    surfactant
  26. membrane or sac enclosing each lung. consists of 2 layers
    pleura
  27. opening between the vocal cords
    glottis
  28. piece of cartilage that encloses the opening into the airway during swallowing
    epiglottis
  29. wall of cartilage that divides the nose into two hollow spaces
    nasal septum
  30. smallest branches of the bronchi
    bronchioles
  31. voice box. lies between the pharynx and the trachea
    larynx
  32. nerve receptors for the sense of smell located in the nose
    olfactory receptors
  33. side of the heart that receives blood (freshly oxygenated) from the lungs
    left
  34. what is the normal respiratory rate for an adult
    14-18
  35. the respiratory rate for a child or infant is usually faster or slower
    faster
  36. what disease is the most common cause of chronic illness in children under the age of 17
    asthma
  37. what disease was the leading cause of death in the united states until 1936
    pneumonia
  38. new vaccines are developed each year to immunize against this disease because many different viruses can cause it
    influenza
  39. chronic irritation of the lungs from smoking is the primary cause of this disease
    emphysema
  40. another name for a nose bleed
    epistaxis
  41. a chronic, noninfectious, progressive respiratory condition that occurs when walls of the alveoli deteriorate and lose their elasticity
    emphysema
  42. an inflammation of the larynx and vocal cords
    laryngitis
  43. a respiratory disease caused by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to various stimuli
    asthma
  44. a viral infection of the upper respiratory system
    influenza
  45. an inflimmation or infection of the lungs characterized by exudate in the alveoli
    pneumonia
  46. inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane
    rhinitis
  47. inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the sinuses
    sinusitis
  48. treatment of epistaxis includes having the patient
    elevate the head and tilt it slightly forward
  49. 3 possible triggers of an asthma attack
    exercise, emotional upset, allergies
  50. name 2 normal defence mechanisms of the airway
    nasopharingeal, epiglottis and cough defense
  51. 3 factors that can predispose a patient to pnemonia
    smoking, altered orophorangeal flora, prolonged imobility
  52. name 2 diseases that can be caused by smoking
    cancer, heart attack
  53. why must nails be kept short and clean
    to not transfer germs, not hurt anyone
  54. often called a dictator
    autocratic
  55. encourages participation
    democratic
  56. informal type of leader
    laissez-faire
  57. list 4 characteristics of leaders
    respect others, understands democracy, knows ones strengths and weaknesses, able to work with others
  58. what part of the nervous system responds when the body is under stress
    sympathetic
  59. what hormone is released into the blood stream as a result of stress
    adrenaline
  60. list 4 possible stressors
    concepts, events, situations, death
  61. list 2 diseases that have stress related origins
    asthma, depression

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