Buddhism Final

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Buddhism Final
2011-05-26 11:22:12

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  1. Mahayana
    • Means "great vehicle"
    • school of Buddhism which developed after the Buddha's parinirvana
    • Emphasizes the boddhisatva path, emptiness, etc
    • differed from Hinaya (lesser vehicle)- anyone can attain enlightenment, less selfish- working for the betterment of all beings
    • multiple buddhas
    • ***not a total rejection of Hinaya**
  2. Hinaya
    • means "lesser vehicle"
    • a name given to early/conservative schools of Buddhism by Mahayana Buddhism
    • Therevada Buddhism included in this
    • were more orthodox and considered selfish by Mahayana- seeking enlightenment for self
    • more emphasis on the monastic community
  3. Bodhisattva
    • means "enlightenment being"
    • in Mahayana Buddhism means one who has postponed personal liberation in favor of a compassionate effort to save all sentient beings
    • no longer just refers to the historical Buddha
    • now refers to anyone aspiring to complete perfect enlightenment, motivated by compassion
  4. Boddhisattva of Comapssion
    (Avalokiteshvara, Kuan Yin, Kannon)
    • "lord who looks down with compassion"
    • depicted with many arms- activities she encompasses to help others
    • took on a very important role in Mahayana Buddhism which emphasizes compassion
  5. Buddhafield/ Pureland
    • refers to the realms in which Buddhas in Mahayana Buddhism reside
    • certain practices can lead to rebirth in desired purelands
    • the most popular is the land of Amithaba- the land of bliss
  6. Amida/ Amitabha Buddha
    • The Buddha of "eternal life"
    • the buddha of "unlimited light"
    • -rules over Western Paradise
    • resides in the Land of Bliss, Sukhavati
    • by reciting the nembutsu, one can be reborn in the realm of Amida
  7. Pureland Buddhism
    • School of Mahayana Buddhism
    • major texts focus on the Buddha of Unlimited Light- Amida
    • By meditating, nembutsu, practitioners can be reborn into the pureland of Amida
  8. Prajnaparamita (Perfection Wisdom) literature
    • Part of Mahayana Buddhism
    • can refer to all sutras or the perfection of widom itself
    • includes writing on:
    • Bodhicitta (thought of awakening- seed of enlightenment, everyone can achieve enlightenment)
    • 6 Perfections
    • Devotion of Bodhisattvas
    • Emptiness
  9. skillful means
    • upaya
    • a key concept in Mahayana Buddhism
    • it involves tailoring the message and passage of Buddhism to whatever practitioners need to get them on the path
    • portrayed in the Parable of the Burning House- the father/Buddha getting the children out of the fire
    • the means by which the Buddha or bodhisattvas make the complex and difficult teachings of Buddhsim understandable to persons of varying mental faculties
  10. Emptiness
    • "sunyata"
    • Key concept in Mahayana Buddhism and subject of Prajnaparamita sutras
    • goes farther than idea of anatman- states that even dharmas/five aggregates are empty
    • Expained in the heart of understanding through "interbeing"
  11. Interbeing
    • Term in the Heart of Understanding
    • coined as a way to understand emptiness
    • you can see everything in nothing
    • ex: idea of garbage and rose
  12. Heart Sutra
    • a text in the prajnaparamita , part of Mahayana literature, one of the prajnaparamita sutra-perfection of wisdom discourses
    • a dialog between the Buddha and disciples
    • The Heart of Understanding is a commentary on this sutra
    • discusses Emptiness
  13. Thich Nhat Hanh
    • Wrote the Heart of Understanding
    • protested war in Vietnam, and violence in world
    • coined "Engaged Buddhism"
    • founded the Order of Interbeing- Chan/Zen Buddhism for monastics and lay people
  14. mindfulness
    • important to Mahayana Buddhism
    • everyone has a seed of mindfulness in them
    • it is a type of energy, being aware, opposite of forgetfulness
  15. 6 Perfections/Paramitas
    • Part of the Boddhisatva Path in Mahayana Buddhism
    • 1. Giving
    • 2. Morality
    • 3. Patience
    • 4. Vigor
    • 5. meditation
    • 6. wisdom
    • Paramita means "going beyond"
    • These along with 4 more are part of the Bodhisattva Path
  16. Buddha nature (tathagatagarbha)
    • means "womb of the Tathagata"
    • doctrine found in Yogacara
    • influences Tantra as well
  17. Vajra
    • "admantine"
    • represented by a diamond-bolt scepter
    • represents the male power in nature, wisdom, prajna
    • part of vajrayana Buddhism
    • it is a popular ritual item in practice
    • should be combined with bell/female power/compassion
  18. Bell
    • a popular ritual item in Vajrayana Buddhism
    • represents the female power, compassion
    • should be combined with the male power, prajna, wisdom
  19. 14th Dalai Lama
    • Tenzin Gyatso
    • was once the political, now just religoius leader of Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism, but resigned his role
    • won the Nobel Peace Prize
    • Trying to gain autnomy, not independence for Tibet
    • advocates for non-violence
    • advocates for the Middle Way Approach, 5 point peace plan
  20. [Dalai Lama’s] Middle Way Path
    • Approach of the Dalai Lama to Tibet and Chinese relations
    • they do not accept their status, but are not seeking independence
    • they want autonomy, but want protection and preservation of their culture, religion, national identity
    • also explain benefits to China- security and territorial integrity, peaceful borders
  21. 5 Point Peace Plan
    • Plan of the Dalai Lama
    • 1) transform Tibet into a Zone of Peace
    • 1) Abandonment of China's Population transfer policy
    • 2) Respect Tibetan human rights and freedoms
    • 3) Restore and Protect natural environment of Tibet (no nuclear dumping)
    • 4) Commencement of negotions for future status of Tibet
  22. tantra
    • Buddhist esoteric school that originated in India
    • emphasizes techniques centered around teh use of mantras, mandalas, sexual imagery and psychological techniques
    • transgression is a key aspect- as a way to understand non-duality
    • the master-disciple relationship was key because of the dangerous nature of some of the practices
    • emphasized the male and female union
    • *a fast track to enlightenment
  23. Vajrayana
    • a Buddhist school which developed from Mahayana Buddhism
    • use the same doctrinal material as Mahayana, but the key difference is the role of Tantra
  24. Kangyur
    • "Translation of the Buddha's Word"
    • Portion of the Tibetan Buddhist canon containing what is thought to be the Buddha's authoritative teaching
    • includes Vinaya, Perfeciton of Wisdom literature, other Mahayana Sutras and Tantras
  25. Tengyur
    • Translation of Commentaries
    • In the Tibetan Canon
    • Includes hymns of praise, and commentaries on the Tantras and the Sutras
    • Indian Translation and Tibetan commentaries on scripture
  26. Mantrayana
    • another name for tantric Buddhism
    • it emphasizes mantra in Vajrayana Buddhism
    • Means "tantric vehicle"
    • emphasis on meditaion and ritualistic practice
  27. Mantra
    • in Tantric Buddhism means a "tool for thinking"
    • uses the symbolic power of sounds as a means for directly experiencing things as they really are
    • blended with mandala and mudra
    • the speech portion of tantric practice
    • **powerful invocations addressed to the dieties
    • deepen spiritual connections
  28. Mandala
    • a symbolic diagram of a Buddha realm
    • Used in visualization to help meditative practices in Tantric Buddhism
    • a world in which the practitioner is the central Buddha
    • should be used in concert with Mudra and Mantra to incorporate the whole body
  29. Mudra
    • body movements, especially hand movements, that have symbolic significance and bring the body more directly into Tantric practice
    • should be practiced with Mantra and Mandala to incorporate mind body and speech
    • they deepen the connection with the deity
  30. deity yoga
    • part of Tantra which refers to the experience of meditative visualization of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas represented in things such as mandalas
    • they personify one's own Buddha potential
  31. Padmasambhava/Guru Rinpoche
    • played an important role in the First Dissemination of Buddhism in Tibet- deemed the "precious guru"
    • developed the Nyingma school
    • a tantric practitioner who had the power to defeat demoic forces in Tibet to allow the dissemination of Buddhism in Tibet
    • gained affection from people in Tibet
  32. Tibetan Empire 7-9th Centuries
    • Was important during the time of the Dissemination of Buddhism into Tibet
    • Sometimes made it difficult becasue warlords thought it threatened supremacy and social aristocracy did not want the monastic members gaining too much power
    • ruled by King Trisong Gampo, Detsen, and future leaders
  33. Samye Monastery
    • first Buddhist monastery built in Tibet
    • Under rule of King Trisong Detsen--> revitalized Buddhism brought in by Gampo
  34. Milarepa
    • the chief disciple of Marpa
    • he went through many trials to gain teachings of Marpa
    • But became one of the most revered people in Tibetan Buddhism
    • Used extremely austere practices
    • embodies the ideal path to enlightenment- life of austere, unattached, tantric yogi
  35. Marpa
    • master/teacher of Milarepa
    • the ideal master, had good lineage- his wisdom from past masters
    • put him through trials before he gave him teachings
    • studied in India with Naropa
  36. Kagyu School
    • Tibetan Buddist school tracing its origins to Marpa, who studied under Naropa and learned the cycle of the Cakrasamvara
    • Brought back the 6 yogas of naropa and teh Great Seal
  37. Geluk School
    • Sect of Tibetan Buddhism founded by Tsongkhapa based on the lineage of Atisa Kadampa sect
    • Known as the "yello hat" sect
    • revitalized the monastic vows
    • the Dalai Lama is a member of this school
  38. Naropa
    • an Indain scholar who turned yogin
    • Passed his teaching on to Marpa
  39. Dakmena
    • Wife of Marpa
    • she represents compassion and was a complement to Marpa
    • represents the ideal of tantric union of male and female
    • he needed both of them
  40. Tsangnyön Heruka
    • author of Milarepa
    • hagiography of life of Milarepa
    • used to give instruciton and instruction to practitioners
  41. Socially Engaged Buddhism
    • A contemporary form of Buddhism that engages actively yet nonviolently with the social, economic, political, and ecological problems of society
    • focus changed from inner peace to inner and outer peace
    • focused on social change
    • blend Eastern and Western ideas
  42. BR Ambedkar
    • was activist who converted to Buddhism
    • fought for the rights of the Untouchables
    • did not agree with karma however
    • "Educate, Agitate, Organize"
    • had his own form of Buddhism: Ambedkarism-shift of focus from suffering to social injustice
    • first Untouchable to get a Phd, 2nd to graduate high school
  43. Sarvodaya
    • "well-being of all"
    • part of Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement in Sri Lanka
    • founded by AT Ariyaratne
  44. AT Ariyaratne
    • established the Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement in 1958
    • it involved dharma for social change
    • took influences from people like Ghandi- ahimsa for example
    • you should give your time and labor for the well-being of others
  45. Tzu Chi Compassionate Relief Association
    • founded by Cheng Yen, Buddhist nun
    • the largest charitable organization in Taiwan
    • founded to help the pooor through charity work and medical care, education
  46. Venerable Cheng Yen
    • Buddhist nun
    • founded Tzu Chi Compassionate Relief Association
    • meant to help the poor, largest charitable organization in Taiwan
    • through charity, medical care and education
  47. Jon Kabat-Zinn
    • uses mindfulness and Zen meditation in programs for pain management and for treating stress-related disorders
    • Founded Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care and Society
    • apply their work to other places like schools and prisons
  48. Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society
    • founded by Jon Kabat-Zinn
    • uses mindfulness and Zen meditation techniques in programs for pain management and to treat stress related disorders
    • it has be used in places like prisons and schools
    • an example of the broad reaching of Buddhism
  49. Greystone Mandala
    • founded by Bernard Tetsugen Glassman in the 1980s
    • dedicated to Zen social engagement
    • includes a Bakery, Family Inn and health centers for HIV/AIDS sufferers
    • sometimes not liked by Buddhism because it takes part in consumerism, but done to help other, not to compete
  50. Bernard Tetsugen Glassman
    • founded Greystone Mandala
    • originally was a Buddhist monk- a Zen Buddist
    • worked to help the poor and homeless uplift themselves
    • through bakery, family inn, health centers
  51. Buddhist Peace Fellowship
    • founded by Robert Aitken
    • concerned that Buddhists be engaged in social applications of their experience
    • promotes collaboration within Buddhism
  52. 1893 World Parliament of Religions
    • part of teh World's Columbian exposition
    • first formal gathering of representatives of Eaastern and western spiritual tradions
    • 1st introduction of Buddhsim and other Asian traditions to the West
    • had originally just seen cultural Buddhism
  53. Heart of Understanding (Thich Nhat Hanh)
    • a commentary on the Heart Sutra
    • explaines ideas of emptiness through interbeing
    • attempts to make concepts more accessible to western culture
  54. Life of Milarepa
    (Tsangnyön Heruka)
    • a hagiography- sacred biography of Milarepa
    • its purpose is to give hope, inspiration and it is also instructional
    • also gives a world view of Vajrayana Buddism at the time of its writing
    • has a narrative, biographical and religious aspect
  55. Lotus Sutra
    • part of the Prajnaparamita
    • sutra that emphasizes the practie of the 6 perfections
    • emphasizes skillful means
    • also addresses the idea of the Buddha not achieving final enlightenment in order to help other beings- selfless