econ 201 ch 12
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time sold as labor
is leisure a normal good
yes, it is subject to the law of dimishing returns
time spent getting an education or on do-it-yourself production for personal consumption
time spent on nonwork activities
what are the 3 uses of time?
- market work
- non-market work
what is meant by maximizing utility
you attempt to maximize utility by allocating your time so that the expected marginal utility of the last unit of time spent in each activity is identical
substitution effect of a wage increase
a higher wage encourages more work because other activities now have a higher opportunity cost
income effect of a wage increase
a higher wage raises a worker's income, increasing the demand for all normal goods, including leisure, so the quantity of labor supplied to market work decreases
backward-bending supply curve
- as the wage rises, the quantity of labor supplied may eventually decline; the income effect of a higher wage increases the demand for leisure, which reduces the quantity of labor supplied enough to more than offset the substitution effect of a higher wage
- ie why rock-stars work less the more famous they become
what are non-wage determinants of labor supply?
- other sources of income
- nonmonetary factors (difficulty of job, work environment, status of the position)
- value of job experience (internships)
- taste for work
why do wages differ?
(a profit maximizing firm hires labor up to the point where labor's marginal revenue product equals its marginal resource cost)
- differences in training, education, age, and experience
- differences in ability
- differences in risk
- geographic differences
- union membership
winner-takes-all labor market
markets in which a few key employees critical to the overall success of an enterprise are richly rewarded
a group of workers who organize to improve their terms of employment
a union whose members have a particular skill or work at a particular craft, such as carpenters or plumbers
what did the Clayton Act of 1914 do for labor unions?
exempted them from antitrust laws, meaning unions at competing companies could legally join forces
a union of both skilled and unskilled workers from a particular industry, such as all autoworkers or all steelworkers
process by which union and management negotiate a labor agreement
an impartial observer who helps resolve differences between union and management
negotiation in which union and management must accept an impartial observer's resolution of a dispute
a union's attempt to withhold labor from a firm to halt production
what are three ways a union might increase wages
- forming an inclusive, or industrial union
- forming an exclusive, or craft union
- increasing the demand for union labor
how do unions increase the demand for union labor?
- increase demand for union-made goods (direct public appeal to by union made goods and restricting supply of nonunion goods)
- increase productivity of union labor (reducing labor turnover)
- featherbedding (forcing employers to hire more members than they want or need)
union efforts to force employers to hire more workers than demanded at a particular wage
What would you like to do?
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