sciencefinal

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Author:
willyvu
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87647
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sciencefinal
Updated:
2011-05-25 01:54:09
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science 8th grade finalSc
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Science Final Review
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  1. The process by which one or more
    substances change to produce one or more different substances
    Chemical Reaction
  2. A solid that is produced as a result of chemical reaction
    Precipitate
  3. A chemical reaction which heat is
    released to the surroundings
    Exothermic Reaction
  4. A chemical reaction that requires
    heat
    Endothermic Reaction
  5. A combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
    Chemical Formula
  6. A substance or molecule that
    participates in a chemical reaction
    Reactant
  7. A substance that forms in a
    chemical reaction
    Product
  8. An interaction that holds atoms or ions together
    Chemical Bond
  9. A compound made of oppositely charged ions
    Ionic Compound
  10. A chemical compound that is formed by the sharing of
    electrons
    Covalent Compound
  11. A compound that can reversibly change color
    depending on conditions such as pH
    Indicator
  12. Any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved
    in water
    Base
  13. Any compound that increases the number of hydronium
    ions when dissolved in water
    Acid
  14. The reaction of an acid and a base to form a neutral solution of water
    and salt
    Neutralization Reaction
  15. A value that is used to express the acidity or
    basicity of a system
    pH
  16. An ionic compound that forms when a metal atom
    replaces the hydrogen of an acid
    Salt
  17. A covalently bonded compound that contains carbon
    Organic Compound
  18. A class of energy-giving nutrients
    that includes sugar, starches, and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
    Carbohydrates
  19. A fat molecule or a molecule that has similar
    properties; examples includes oils, waxes, steroids
    Lipid
  20. A molecule that is made up of amino acids
    and that is needed to build and repair body structures to regulate processes
    Protein
  21. A molecule made up of subunits called nucleotides
    Nucleic Acid
  22. An object’s change in position relative to a reference point
    Motion
  23. The speed of an object in a particular
    direction
    Velocity
  24. A push or pull exerted on an object in order
    to change the motion of the object; force has size and direction
    Force
  25. The SI unit for force
    Newtons
  26. The combination of all of the forces acting on an object
    Net Force
  27. A force that opposes motion between two surfaces that in contact
    Friction
  28. A force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses
    Gravity
  29. A measure of the gravitational force exerted
    on an object; its value can change with the location of the object in the universe
    Weight
  30. A measure of amount of matter in an object
    Mass
  31. Equation for change in velocity
    v = g x t
  32. The constant velocity of a
    falling object when the force of air resistance s equal in magnitude and
    opposite in direction to the force of gravity
    Terminal Velocity
  33. The motion of a body when only the force
    of gravity is acting on the body
    Free Fall
  34. The curved path that an object
    follows when thrown, launched, or otherwise projected near the surface of Earth
    Projectile Motion
  35. An object at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion remains in
    motion at a constant speed in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced
    force
    Newton's 1st Law
  36. The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of
    the object and the amount of force applied
    Newton's 2nd Law
  37. Whenever one object exerts a force on a second
    object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first
    Newton's 3rd Law
  38. The tendency of an object to resist being
    moved or, if the object is moving, to resist a change in speed or direction
    until an outside force acts on the object
    Inertia
  39. A non-solid state of matter in which the atoms
    or molecules are free to move past each other, as in a gas or a liquid
    Fluid
  40. The amount of force exerted per unit area
    of a surface
    Pressure
  41. SI unit for pressure
    Pascal
  42. The pressure caused be the
    weight of the atmosphere
    Atmospheric Pressure
  43. The upward force that keeps an object
    immersed in or floating on a liquid
    Buoyant Force
  44. The principle that states that the buoyant force
    on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the volume of
    fluid that the object displaces
    Archimedes Principle
  45. The band of colors when a white light passes through a prism
    Spectrum
  46. Brightest Stars
    First- Magnitude
  47. Dimmest
    Sixth- Magnitude
  48. What stars have a negative number?
    Bright Stars
  49. What stars have a positive number?
    Dim Stars
  50. The distance the light travels in one
    year, about 95.6 trillion kilometers
    Light- Year
  51. The brightness of a star seen
    from Earth
    Apparent Magnitude
  52. The brightness that a star would have at distance of
    32.6 light- years from Earth
    Absolute Magnitude
  53. An apparent magnitude shift in the
    position of an object when viewed from different locations
    Parallax
  54. The location on the H-R diagram where
    most stars lie
    Main Sequence
  55. A graph that shoes the relationship between
    a star’s surface temperature and absolute magnitude
    H-R Diagram
  56. A gigantic explosion in which a massive
    star collapses and throws its outer layers into space
    Supernova
  57. A collection of stars, dust, and gas bound
    together by gravity
    Galaxy
  58. A large cloud of gas and dust in interstellar space; a region in space where
    stars are born
    Nebula
  59. A rotating cloud of gas and dust which the sun and planets formed
    Solar Nebula
  60. The average distance between
    Earth and the sun; approximately 150 million kilometers
    Astronomical Unit
  61. Layers of the suns
    Core, radiative zone, convective zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona
  62. The counterclockwise spin of a
    planet or moon seen from about the planet’s North Pole in the same direction as
    the sun’s rotation.
    Prograde Rotation
  63. The clockwise spin of a planet
    or moon as seen from above the planet’s North Pole
    Retrograde Rotation
  64. A planet that has a deep, massive
    atmosphere, such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
    Gas Giant
  65. Jupiter’s four largest moons
    Europa, Io, Callisto, Ganymede
  66. Formation of the moon
    Impact, ejection, formation
  67. A small body of ice, rock, and dust that
    follows an elliptical orbit around the sun and that gives off gas and dust in
    the form of a tail as is passes close to the sun
    Comet
  68. Two types of comet tails
    Ion tail and dust tail
  69. A small, rocky object that
    orbits the sun
    Asteroid
  70. A relatively small,
    rocky body that travels through space
    Meteoroid
  71. A bright streak of light
    that results when a meteoroid burns up in Earth’s atmosphere
    Meteor
  72. A meteoroid that
    reaches Earth’s surface without burning up completely
    Meteorite

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