Card Set Information
all cell functions depend on fluid environment
60-70% of total body weight
maintain body temp, give form to body
influence and control of water distribution- solutes, separating membranes between compartments
primary source for energy; brain, skeletal muscle, erythrocyte production
obtained primarily from plants; fruits, veg, wheat
simple and complex
all carbs converted to glucose which is stored in the liver.
monosaccharide- cannot be broken down
disacchride- 2 mono and water (sucrose/lactose/maltose)
Fruits, veggies, grains, milk, sugars
polysacchrides- insoluble- digested to glycogen
fiber- soluble and insoluble-
wheat flour, broccoli, green beans, peas, carrots, apples
soluble-oatmeal, vegs, prunes, pears, apples, bananas
source of energy, nutients, palatability
triglycerides and fatty acids
essential functions; membrane structure, cholesterol transport, blood clotting
25-30% diet (12-17 g/day)
digestion in SI- pancreatic lipase
foods- butter, bacon, meat
functions- vital in metabolism, formation of bile acids, essential component of cell membranes in brain and nerve cells. NON essential.
Food:animal products (eggs yolk, meats)
implicated in vascular disease, atherosclerosis
needed for synthesis of body tissues in growth, maintenance and repair
: myosin, collagen, hemoglobin, albumin, antibodies, hormones, enzymes.
Protien food types
Complete- all indespensible AA, animal origin
incomplete- missing one or more indespensible AA, mostly plants
ONLY exception is SOY, complete plant protien
indicates protien state
: negative nitrogen when loss of body protien exceeds input, this happens in long term illness, starvation, hypermetabolic wasting disease
organic substances present in foods
Can NOT be made by body, essential for normal metabolism of energy nutrients, highest in fresh foods
fat and water soluble
Fat soluble 1. preformed (retinol) 2. provitamin (beta-carotene)
stored/distributed by liver
: night blindness, d/c barrier to infections, development issues
: toxic: hypervitaminosis A: joint pain, thickening of long bones, hair loss, jaundice
: liver, kidney, milk, yellow and green fruits and veggies
not a vitamin
: a prohormone of sterol type. 1. ergocalciferol (D2) 2. cholecalciferol (D3)
absorbed in SI with bile
: hypervitaminosis D: weakness, bone pain, hypercalcemia
: yeast, fish liver oils
absorbed in SI with bile into lymph and circulation. stored in liver and adipose tissue.
AntiOxidant- prevents oxidation of unsat fats and LDL cholesterol.
: hemolytic anemia, disrupts mylin and rods and cones in retina
: veg oils, nuts
stored in liver
: hemorrhagic disease in newborns, cystic fibrosis, malabsorption of fat.
Green veggies and liver
unstable, destroyed by 02, absorbed in Si. excess excrete in urine
75-90 mg extra 35 for smokers
AntiOxidant, maintains bone matrix, dentin, collagen, formation of hemoglobin.
Citrus, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli
: thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, biotin, folate, cobalamin.
water soluble, metabolic functions.
inorganic elements, vital role in metabolism.
Ca, Phos, Na, K, Mg, Cl, sulfur
Trace- Iron, Iodine, Zinc, copper, chromium, cobalt
what is implicated in vascular disease and atheroscleorsis?
How much of diet should protiens be?
Tissue protien types:
collagen-bone, cartilage, skin
hemoglobin- wraps around heme, secure iron and expose it to 02.
Albumin- colloid pressure in capillaries
Special protiens-antibodies, fibrinogen, hormones, enzymes, BLOOD.
Vitamin A req?
700-900 mcg/ day
Vitamin A Deficiency causes?
night blindness, d/c barriers to infection, growth and developement issues
Vitamin A toxicity causes?
hypervitaminosis A: joint pain, thickening of long bones, hair loss, and jaundice, congenital malformations in pregnancy.
not a vitamin
Vitamin D is a prohormone of a sterol type
2 forms of Vitamin D
Requirements of Vitamin D?
5-15 mcg/ day
Vitamin D toxicity?
Hypervitaminosis D: hypercalcemia, weakness, bone pain
Were is Vitamin E absorbed and stored?
SI with aid of bile into lymph
stored in liver and adipose tissue
natures most potent fat soluble antioxidant?
prevent oxidation of unsat fats, and LDL cholesterol
protects arterial lining from inflammation leading to atherosclerosis.
Vitamin E deficiencies cause?
hemolytic anemia, nervous system disfunctions, making of myelin disrupted, degeneration of rods and cones in retina
food sources for Vitamin E?
vegetable oils, nuts
requirements for vitamin K?
deficiencies in Vitamin K causes:
hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, malabsorption of fat, cystic fibrosis
--green veggies and liver
vitamin that is destroyed by oxygen and high temps?
vitamin C, water soluble
Vitamin C req?
extra 35 for smokers
water soluble antioxidant?
builds bone matrix, dentin, collagen, connective tissue, formation of hemoglobin
: citrus, tomatoes, white & sweet potatoes
deficiency in Thiamine causes?
muscle weakness, anemia, wasting away
: alcoholism, fever, infection, growth
which B vitamin is easily destroyed by light and irridation?
what other B vitamin does Niacin interact with?
is coenzyme to riboflavin, converts proteins and glycerol into glucose and then oxidize the glucose to release energy, lowers serum cholesterol
What B vitamin is stored in muscle?
Pyridoxine, absorbed in upper SI
what B vitamin combines with phosphorus?
Pantothenic Acid, to form acetyl coenzyme a (CoA)
which is the sulfur containing B vitamin?
requirments of Folate? (B vitamin)
do NOT exceed 1,000 mcg/day
function of Cobalamin? (B vitamin)
formation of heme of hemoglobin, myelin sheath.
functions of the macromineral Ca?
bone, tooth formation, blood clotting, nerve transmission, muscle contraction
: tetany, osteoporosis
requirments of macromineral Phosphorus?
Reqiurement of macromineral sodium?
req of macromineral K?
--legumes, whole grains, fruits, leafy veggies
Mg (310-400 mg)
Cl (750 mg)
sulfur- essential to protein structure
oxygen transport, growth
70-80% found inthyroid gland
other essential trace elements:
zinc- growth and metabolism
copper- energy, hemoglobin production
manganese-catalyzes metabolic reactions
chromium-facilitates action of insulin
cobalt- RBC formation
flouride- protects against mineral loss