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- all cell functions depend on fluid environment
- 60-70% of total body weight
- maintain body temp, give form to body
- influence and control of water distribution- solutes, separating membranes between compartments
- primary source for energy; brain, skeletal muscle, erythrocyte production
- obtained primarily from plants; fruits, veg, wheat
- 50-60% diet
- simple and complex
- all carbs converted to glucose which is stored in the liver.
- monosaccharide- cannot be broken down
- disacchride- 2 mono and water (sucrose/lactose/maltose)
- Fruits, veggies, grains, milk, sugars
- polysacchrides- insoluble- digested to glycogen
- fiber- soluble and insoluble-
- wheat flour, broccoli, green beans, peas, carrots, apples
- soluble-oatmeal, vegs, prunes, pears, apples, bananas
- source of energy, nutients, palatability
- triglycerides and fatty acids
- essential functions; membrane structure, cholesterol transport, blood clotting
- 25-30% diet (12-17 g/day)
- digestion in SI- pancreatic lipase
- foods- butter, bacon, meat
- functions- vital in metabolism, formation of bile acids, essential component of cell membranes in brain and nerve cells. NON essential.
- Food:animal products (eggs yolk, meats)
- implicated in vascular disease, atherosclerosis
- needed for synthesis of body tissues in growth, maintenance and repair
- 15-20% diet
- protien types: myosin, collagen, hemoglobin, albumin, antibodies, hormones, enzymes.
Protien food types
- Complete- all indespensible AA, animal origin
- incomplete- missing one or more indespensible AA, mostly plants
- ONLY exception is SOY, complete plant protien
- indicates protien state
- harmful state: negative nitrogen when loss of body protien exceeds input, this happens in long term illness, starvation, hypermetabolic wasting disease
- organic substances present in foods
- Can NOT be made by body, essential for normal metabolism of energy nutrients, highest in fresh foods
- fat and water soluble
- Fat soluble 1. preformed (retinol) 2. provitamin (beta-carotene)
- stored/distributed by liver
- 700-900 mcg/day
- D: night blindness, d/c barrier to infections, development issues
- E: toxic: hypervitaminosis A: joint pain, thickening of long bones, hair loss, jaundice
- Food: liver, kidney, milk, yellow and green fruits and veggies
- not a vitamin: a prohormone of sterol type. 1. ergocalciferol (D2) 2. cholecalciferol (D3)
- absorbed in SI with bile
- 5-15 mcg/day
- D: ricketes
- Toxic: hypervitaminosis D: weakness, bone pain, hypercalcemia
- foods: yeast, fish liver oils
- absorbed in SI with bile into lymph and circulation. stored in liver and adipose tissue.
- AntiOxidant- prevents oxidation of unsat fats and LDL cholesterol.
- 6-15 mg
- D: hemolytic anemia, disrupts mylin and rods and cones in retina
- foods: veg oils, nuts
- stored in liver
- 90-120 mcg
- D: hemorrhagic disease in newborns, cystic fibrosis, malabsorption of fat.
- Green veggies and liver
- unstable, destroyed by 02, absorbed in Si. excess excrete in urine
- 75-90 mg extra 35 for smokers
- AntiOxidant, maintains bone matrix, dentin, collagen, formation of hemoglobin.
- Citrus, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli
- 8: thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, biotin, folate, cobalamin.
- water soluble, metabolic functions.
- inorganic elements, vital role in metabolism.
- Ca, Phos, Na, K, Mg, Cl, sulfur
- Trace- Iron, Iodine, Zinc, copper, chromium, cobalt
what is implicated in vascular disease and atheroscleorsis?
How much of diet should protiens be?
Tissue protien types:
- Myosin-muscle fiber
- collagen-bone, cartilage, skin
- hemoglobin- wraps around heme, secure iron and expose it to 02.
- Albumin- colloid pressure in capillaries
- Special protiens-antibodies, fibrinogen, hormones, enzymes, BLOOD.
Vitamin A req?
700-900 mcg/ day
Vitamin A Deficiency causes?
night blindness, d/c barriers to infection, growth and developement issues
Vitamin A toxicity causes?
hypervitaminosis A: joint pain, thickening of long bones, hair loss, and jaundice, congenital malformations in pregnancy.
not a vitamin
Vitamin D is a prohormone of a sterol type
2 forms of Vitamin D
- ergocalficerol- D2
- cholecalficerol- D3
Requirements of Vitamin D?
5-15 mcg/ day
Vitamin D toxicity?
Hypervitaminosis D: hypercalcemia, weakness, bone pain
Were is Vitamin E absorbed and stored?
- SI with aid of bile into lymph
- stored in liver and adipose tissue
natures most potent fat soluble antioxidant?
- Vitamin E
- prevent oxidation of unsat fats, and LDL cholesterol
- protects arterial lining from inflammation leading to atherosclerosis.
Vitamin E deficiencies cause?
hemolytic anemia, nervous system disfunctions, making of myelin disrupted, degeneration of rods and cones in retina
food sources for Vitamin E?
vegetable oils, nuts
requirements for vitamin K?
deficiencies in Vitamin K causes:
- hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, malabsorption of fat, cystic fibrosis
- --green veggies and liver
vitamin that is destroyed by oxygen and high temps?
vitamin C, water soluble
Vitamin C req?
- 75-90 mg
- extra 35 for smokers
water soluble antioxidant?
- Vitamin C
- builds bone matrix, dentin, collagen, connective tissue, formation of hemoglobin
- foods: citrus, tomatoes, white & sweet potatoes
deficiency in Thiamine causes?
- muscle weakness, anemia, wasting away
- special needs: alcoholism, fever, infection, growth
which B vitamin is easily destroyed by light and irridation?
what other B vitamin does Niacin interact with?
is coenzyme to riboflavin, converts proteins and glycerol into glucose and then oxidize the glucose to release energy, lowers serum cholesterol
What B vitamin is stored in muscle?
Pyridoxine, absorbed in upper SI
what B vitamin combines with phosphorus?
Pantothenic Acid, to form acetyl coenzyme a (CoA)
which is the sulfur containing B vitamin?
requirments of Folate? (B vitamin)
- 400 mcg/day
- do NOT exceed 1,000 mcg/day
function of Cobalamin? (B vitamin)
formation of heme of hemoglobin, myelin sheath.
functions of the macromineral Ca?
- bone, tooth formation, blood clotting, nerve transmission, muscle contraction
- D: tetany, osteoporosis
requirments of macromineral Phosphorus?
Reqiurement of macromineral sodium?
req of macromineral K?
- 1600-2000 mg/day
- --legumes, whole grains, fruits, leafy veggies
- Mg (310-400 mg)
- Cl (750 mg)
- sulfur- essential to protein structure
- 8-18 mg
- oxygen transport, growth
70-80% found inthyroid gland
other essential trace elements:
- zinc- growth and metabolism
- copper- energy, hemoglobin production
- manganese-catalyzes metabolic reactions
- chromium-facilitates action of insulin
- cobalt- RBC formation
- flouride- protects against mineral loss