Biology

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Author:
koolcookie11
ID:
87709
Filename:
Biology
Updated:
2011-05-25 14:48:57
Tags:
Biology Biodiversity Evolution
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Description:
Biology Biodiversity and Evolution
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  1. Species
    A group of individual organsims similar in appearance whose members are able to interbreed freely to produce fertile offspring
  2. Habitat
    The place where an organism lives
  3. Biodiversity
    The variety of life- the range of living organisms to be found
  4. Global biodiversity
    • Bacteria 4000+
    • Protocista 80 000+
    • Fungi 70 000+
    • Plants 293 000+
    • Invertibrates 1 280 000+
  5. Sampling plants
    • Quadrats- square, gridded, point frame
    • Transect- line, belt
  6. Sampling animals
    • Sweep netting
    • Pitfall trap
    • Tullgren funnel
    • Light trap
  7. Classification
    The process of sorting living things into groups
  8. Taxonomy
    Study of the principles of classification
  9. Phylogeny
    Study of the evolutionary relationships between organisms
  10. Prokaryotae
    • No nucleus
    • Have a loop of naked DNA
    • No membrane bound organelles
    • Smaller ribosomes
    • Carry out respiration not in mitochondria
    • Smaller cells
  11. Protocista
    • Eukaryotes
    • Mostly single celled
    • Free living
    • Autotrophic or heterotrophic nutrition
  12. Fungi
    • Eukaryotes
    • Have a mycelium
    • Walls made of chitin
    • Cytoplasm is multinucleate
    • Free living
    • Saprophytic
  13. Plantae
    • Eukaryotes
    • Multicellular
    • Cellulose cell wall
    • Autotrophic nutrition
  14. Animalia
    • Eukaryotes
    • Multicellular
    • Heterotrophic nutrition
    • Eggs
  15. System of classification
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  16. Domains
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukaryotae
  17. Variation
    The presence of differences between individuals
  18. Continuous variation
    • Where there are two extremes and a range of intermediate values
    • Eg height, length of leaves/stalk
  19. Discontinuous variation
    • where there are two or more distinct categories with no intermediate values
    • Eg sex, bacteria with flagella, human blood group
  20. Causes of variation
    • Genetic: inheriting a combination of alleles
    • Environmental: affected by environment, such as tanning
  21. Adaptations
    • a feature that enhances survival and long-term reproductive success
    • Behavioural: aspect of behaviour, examples-stomata, rolling leaves up
    • Physiological: ensuring the correct functioning of cell processes, examples-yeast respiring
    • Anatomical: structure, example-flagellum
  22. Theory of evolution: four observations
    • offspring generally appear similar to their parents
    • no two individuals are identical
    • organisms have the ability to produce large numbers of offspring
    • populations in nature tend to remain fairly stable in size
  23. Speciation
    • formation of a new species
    • caused by reproductive barriers
  24. Evidence for the theory of evolution
    • fossils
    • DNA
    • molecules
  25. Evolution
    • 1. variation must occur before evolution can take place
    • 2. once variation exists, then the environment can'select'. It will select those variations that give an advantage
    • 3. individuals with an advantage will survive and reproduce
    • 4. therefore they pass on their advantageous characteristics (inheritance)
    • 5. the next generation will be better adapted to their environment. Over time the group of organisms becomes well adapted to its environment (adaptation)
  26. Conservation
    • economic
    • ecological
    • ethical
    • aesthetic
  27. In situ
    • attempting to minimise human impact on the natural environment and protecting natural environment
    • conservation parks
  28. Ex situ
    • conserving an endangered species by activities that take place outside its normal environment
    • zoos
    • botanical gardens
    • seed banks
  29. International cooperation
    • CITES: convention on international trade in endangered species
    • Rio convention on biodiversity
    • EIA: environmental impact assessment

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