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2011-05-25 13:31:16

disease and epidimeology
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  1. pathology:
    science of study of disease.
  2. etiology
    cause of a disease
  3. epidimiology
    science studies the incedence and causes of a disease.

    communicable disease; contagiouse and cought. ex the flu

    non comunicable= non contagiouse- heart attack.
  4. infection
    invasion by a pathogen.
  5. normal flora
    organisms that live on/in host w/o causing a disease.

    -they have a symbiotic role.
  6. determination of cause of a disease
    the disease would have to pass or follow the four steps of kuch's postulates.
  7. agencies in keeping track of disease
    center of disease control/ prevention in Atlanta Georgia.

    morbility mortality weekly report

    world health organization
  8. CDC
    center for disease control and preventioon

    in Atlanta, GA
  9. MMWR
    morbidity- # of individuals having a particular disease w/in a given amount of time.

    mortality- # of death for a disease.
  10. reporting communcable/ infectous disease
    • 1. local health authorities
    • 2. county health authorities.
    • 3. state department of health.
    • 4. CDC.
    • 5. WHO.
  11. endemic:
    disesase constantly present in a reletively small # of victims.
  12. epedemic:
    unusaul occurance of a disease in a high # population in a limmited amount of time.
  13. pandemic:
    series of epedemics affecting affecting several areas of the world.
  14. speradic:
    disease that appear at irregular and unussaul periods of time.
  15. how disease are communicated:
    resevior of infection- host or local enviornment that supprts the survival and multiplication of the pathogen.

    • includes:
    • -1.humans
    • -2.other animals.
    • -3.insects.
    • -4.food/ drink (contaminated)
    • -5.soil.
    • -6.fomites- contaminated
    • inanimate objects.
  16. direct contact:
    • lesions
    • respiratory secretions
    • ~sneeze, cough, saliva0- kissing and speaking.

    • example: cold, polio, sore throat
    • hands carry enteropathic (bowel/feces)
    • hands-oral.
  17. indirect contact:
    • person carrying pathogen transmits it to something else.
    • ex: person to food
    • -botulism
    • -food piosoning
    • person eating/drinking from utensils.
  18. air borne disease:
    -particles furming in the air, contaminated with a pathogen.

    • A.dust particles.
    • B. droplet nuclei- contain moisture.

    they stay suspended in the air and u breath them in.
  19. fomites:
    • inanmate objects
    • surgical instuements, glass, linnens.
  20. accidental transmision:
    • -via inhalation
    • -self injection
  21. insect vectors:
    carries pathogen w/o having the infection.

    if it carries the pathogen outside of the body= mechanical transmission. (flies)

    if it carries the pathogen w/ in the body= biological transmission.
  22. zoonoses:
    • infection transmittecd by lower animals.
    • rats, bats, dogs etc.
  23. hospital aquired:
    • nosocomial infections
    • hospital= resevoir of infections.
  24. chemotherapy:
    use of chemicals to kill or interfere with the org. causing the disease eityh out harming the host.
  25. antibiotics:
    any substance made by an org. to kill or inhibit another org.

    • today we have
    • -naturally occuring
    • -sythetic
    • -semisynthetic
  26. cidal:
    to kill
  27. static:
    to keep alive but not allow to reproduce.
  28. principles of chemotherapy:
    1. reletively non-toxic to the host, while selectively toxic to the pathogen.

    2. must reach desired body sight in effective dosage. (minimum inhibatory concentration MIC)
  29. what effects the MIC?
    • route
    • initial dosage
    • patients health
    • allergies
    • nature of pathogen
    • site of infection
  30. combination therapy:
    2 or more diff. drugs @ once. has a less effect than one drug by itslef.

    this is known as a synergistic effect.
  31. organism must be sensitive to drug in MIC
  32. inhibition of formation of certain vtal metabolites.
    sulfa drugs.
  33. inhibition of cell wall formation.
    penecillins, becitracin