BIO Lecture Chap. 1,2

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BIO Lecture Chap. 1,2
2011-06-12 16:43:18

Chapter 1
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  1. Biology
    The Study of living things
  2. Informational molecule of life
    • DNA
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid
  3. Levels of organization for life
    • Atom
    • Molecule
    • Cell
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • Organ System
    • Multicellular organism
    • Population
    • Community
    • Ecosystem
    • Biosphere
  4. Element
    Pure substance that cannot be broken down and retains properties
  5. Atom
    Smallest chemical unit of an element
  6. Molecule
    2 or more atoms of the same or different element joined in a specific ratio
  7. Cell
    Basic structural and functional unit of life
  8. Compound
    • 2 or more atoms of different elements joined in a specific ratio
    • H2O
  9. 4 molecules of life
    • 1. Proteins
    • 2. Carbohydrates
    • 3. Lipids
    • 4. Nucleic Acids
  10. Examples of single celled organisms
    • Amoeba
    • Bacteria
  11. Multi cellular organisms
    • Sponge
    • Toadstool
    • Human
  12. Tissue
    Like cells arranged and working together
  13. Organs
    2 or more tissues combined and working together
  14. Organ system
    multiple organs combined and work together
  15. Population
    A group of the same organisms in a particular location
  16. Community
    All the organisms in a particular location
  17. Ecosystem
    All living and nonliving things in the environment (soil, water, air as well)
  18. Biosphere
    Parts of the planet where life is existing
  19. Emergent properties
    The "whole" is equal to more than the sum of the parts
  20. Initial source of energy
    The Sun
  21. Flow of energy
    Unidirectional: one way flow from sun to organisms
  22. Producers
    • AKA autotrophs
    • take light energy and convert it into glucose through photosynthesis to create ATP
  23. Consumers
    • AKA heterotrophs
    • Cannot make own glucose- must take in organic compounds (like glucose)
  24. Decomposers
    • Eat dead or decaying things
    • Heterotrophs
  25. ATP
    The universal curring of Energy
  26. 100% conversion of energy?
    • No, as energy is passed from the Sun to decomposers, the amount of energy is lessened
    • We give off heat
  27. Homeostasis
    Maintaining the same environment
  28. 5 characteristics of life
    • 1. Organization
    • 2. Energy Use
    • 3. Maintenance of internal constancy
    • 4. Reproduction, growth, and development
    • 5. Evolution
  29. Evolution
    Changes of population over time
  30. Asexual Reproduction
    • Making exact replicas
    • Better in a static environment
  31. Sexual Reproduction
    Needs two species in special environment
  32. Linnaeus
    • Devised a binomial system for naming organisms
    • Genus and Species
    • Homo Sapians
  33. 2 Basic types of cells
    Prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic cells
  34. Prokaryotic cells
    • Only make bacteria
    • Simpler, smaller
    • Have cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribozomes, and DNA
  35. Eukaryotic cells
    • Makes up all living organisms except bacteria
    • Have cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribozomes, and DNA
  36. Scientific method
    • A general way of organizing an investigation
    • 1. Make observations
    • 2. ask a question
    • 3. Form a hypothesis
    • 4. Design a controlled experiment
    • 5. Collect and interpret data
    • 6. Draw conclusions
    • 7. Retest
  37. Hypothesis
    • a tenative explanation based on previous knowledge
    • Must be testable
  38. Experiment
    Used to test a hypothesis under controlled conditions
  39. Peer Review
    Scientists independently evaluate the validity of the methods, data, and conclusions
  40. Independent variable
    Used to determine whether it influences some other phenomenon
  41. Dependent variable
    The response to the independent variable that the scientist measures
  42. Standardized variable
    Anything that the scientist holds constant for all subjects in the experiment
  43. control group
    the group that does not get the independent variable
  44. Experimental group
    The group that gets the independent variable
  45. Placebo
    An inert substance that resembles the treatment given to the experimental group
  46. Double-blind design
    neither researchers nor the participants know who received the substance being evaluated and who received the placebo
  47. Theory
    • An explanation for a natural phenomenon
    • Broader than a hypothesis
  48. Atomic number
    the number of protons in the nucleus
  49. Ion
    An atom that has gained or lost electrons and therefore has a net negative or positive charge
  50. Mass number
    the total number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
  51. Isotope
    • any of the different forms of a single element
    • Have same chemical properties, but different mass numbers b/c of different number of neutrons
  52. Atomic mass
    • AKA atomic weight
    • the average mass of all isotopes
  53. Radioactive elements
    • isotopes emit energy as rays or particles when they break down into more stable forms
    • Has a half life
  54. Molecule
    • Two or more chemically joined atoms
    • Can be the same or different atoms
  55. Compound
    A molecule composed of two or more different elements
  56. Orbitals
    • the most likely location for an electron relative to its nucleus
    • Can hold up to two electrons
  57. Energy shell
    • a group of orbitals that share the same level
    • # of orbitals in each shell determines the # of electrons the shell can hold
  58. Valence shell
    • its outermost occupied energy shell
    • Atoms most stable when their valence shells are full
  59. Chemical bond
    An attractive force that holds atoms together in a molecule
  60. Covalent bond
    • Forms when two atoms share electrons
    • Each single bond holds two electrons
    • Can have double and triple bonds
    • Has the strongest bond
  61. Electronegativity
  62. A measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons
  63. Nonpolar covalent bond
  64. A bipartisan union in which both atoms exert approximately equal pull on their shared electrons
  65. Polar covalent bond
  66. A lopsided union in which one nucleus exerts a stronger pull on the shared electrons than does the other nucleus
  67. Ionic bond
    When there is an electrical attraction between two ions with opposite charges
  68. Hydrogen bond
    • When opposite partial charges on adjacent molecules attract each other
    • Partial positive=hydrogen
    • Partial negative=oxygen
  69. Cohesion
    • The tendency of water molecules to stick together
    • Water sticking to water
  70. Adhesion
    The tendency to form hydrogen bonds with other substances
  71. Solvent
    • A chemical in which other substances dissolve
    • Usually water
  72. Solute
    The chemical which the substance is dissolved in a solvent
  73. Solution
    Consists of one or more solutes dissolved in a liquid solvent
  74. Hydrophilic
    • When substances readily dissolve in water
    • Examples- sugar, salt, and ions
  75. Hydrophobic
    • water fearing- do not dissolve in water
    • Why water alone will not remove oil from face
  76. Evaporation
    The conversion of a liquid into a vapor
  77. Homeostasis
    • Making sure that a compound is stabilized
    • Sweating and shivering to maintain the body's temp.
  78. Chemical reaction
    • When two or more molecules swap their atoms to yield different milecules
    • Reactants (left) and products (right)
  79. Neutral solution
    Has the exact same amount of H+ and OH-
  80. Acid
    • a chemical that adds H+ to a solution, making the concentrration of H= ions exceed the concentration of OH- ions
    • Example- HCL and H2SO4
    • 0-7 pH
  81. Base
    • Makes the concentration of OH- ions exceed the concentration of H= ions
    • Examples- NaOH
    • 7-14 pH
    • AKA Alkalines
  82. pH scale
    • Used to guage how acidic or basic a solution is
    • goes from 0-14
    • The higher the number, the less H+ concentration
  83. Buffer system
    • when pairs of weak acids and basis resist pH changes
    • Example- H2CO3
  84. Organic molecules
    • Chemical compounds that contain both carbon and hydrogen
    • Example- CH4 methane