English Poetry and Literature
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wrote the passionate Shepherd to His Love;
he went to ___ University
- Christopher Marlowe (1564- 1593)
poet that was a spy; he went to jail, was involved in street fights; and evetually died by being stabbed in the eye; wrote Dido, Queen of Carthage, Tamburlaine; The Jew of Malta; The Massacre at Paris; Edward II; and Doctor Falcus
Marlowe's greatest tragic heroes have been called _; self-driven, pwer hungry men who refuse to recognize either their limitations as human beings or their responsibilities to God and their fellow creatures
What is the Passionate Shepherd about? What type of poem is it?
- hes asking a woman to come live with him on the farmland abnd be his love; they will be happy, live peaceful adn pleasant lives in the beautiful farmland; he tells her she will love everything about the land
work tha tis set in an idealized countryside, and their characters are often blends of the naive and the sophisticated; latin for shepherd
__ was Queen Elizabeth's confidential secretary and captain of her guard; made may enemies; King james, whose mind was poisoned by others, sentenced this man to death when Elizabeth died; he was imprisoned in the Tower of London; wrote a History of the World; allowed to undertake last voyage to Guiana
Sir Walter Raleigh
Who wrote The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd?
Sir Walter Raleigh
What is the Nymph's Reply saying?
the nymph is saying that in reality, the farmland isn't really like that; she describes in more realistic terms
What is Shakespeare's Sonnet 130 about?
It's about a man who talks about how the woman he loves is so ordinary. There's nothing special about her. He won't compare her to things llike the sun because she's human and thats not true. SHe's good in her own way. Unlike poets, he's not gonna falsely compare her
poet who wrote the poem Song
John Donne (1572-1631)
- wrote learned, passonate, argumentative poetry, most never published
- first aim to be a courtier: a member of the queen's government
- serious handicap: Roman Catholic
- became a law student
- father died when he was four
- secretly married 17 year old, Anne More
- became known as important defender of the Church of England
- King James I persuaded him to become a clergyman in 1615
What is Song about?
that men have to travel very far, but even if they do they will not find a faithful woman
wrote Paradise Lost
- two outstanding poems by him are Comus and Lycidas
celebrates the memory of a dead poem
- this one called Lycidas remembers Edward King
----> It is also called a _- because it imitates ancient ones by using imagery of hseperds and their flocks
John Milton, when between King Charles and the government, Milton wrote supporting the __. Therefore, some refer to him as a __.
during part of this period, Milton served in the gov of England under __, who with the title of lord protector, ruled England after the Parliamentary party won the Civil Wars and executed King Charles.
- Parliamentary Party
- Oliver Cromwell
At age 44, this poet was completely blind
Believed in an intelligent, capable, and virtuous government
he was jailed after the dead king's son returned from exile and was crowneed King Charles II
Milton published __ twice: first in a ten-book version in 1667 and then in twelve books in 1674, the year of his death. __ seems to be the protanonist in Books III- X
__ is a 10, 565- line poem; the poem ranges back from hell and heaven; the main actions take place on Earth with Adam and Eve, choosing to obey or disobey God
- Paradise Lost
- Paradise Lost
What two things does an epic poet do?
- speaker invokes the muse to speak or sing through the poet
- speaker states the subject of the poem
Milton decided to write his epic in his native language and in shakespeare's meter, which is __, or unrhymed iambic pentameter.
- poet who was a bricklayer by his stepfather
- became acquainted with Eilliam Canmden, headmaster and scholar of westminster School who enrolled thi spoet in his school
Ben jonson (1572?- 1637)
- joined the English army and fought against the spanish at flanders; killed the Spanish champion in single combat
- two brushes with the law: killed a fellow actor and escaped hanging by showing he could read and when he went to prison for making derogatory remarks about Scotland in a play
- became known as a dramatist
- particularly good at devising masques for the court of King james
- wrote traedies and comedies for the public theaters
- published a numberof plays and poems under __, a label traditinally reserved for more intellectual subjects, like theology and history
- literary dictator; buried near Chaucer in Westminster Abbey (today as Poet's Corner)
__, the most important poet of the early 18th century, was a clid prodigy
at 16, began poetic career, as the Roman poet Virgil did, bywriting __- poems describing the countryside;
- when 23, published An essay on Criticism, a poem inspired by the Latin poet Horace's Art of Poetry
At 24, __ published a miniature classical epic, the Rape of the Lock
- translated Homer's Iliad and the Odyssey
- referred to as neoclassical (new classical) poet
- early success inspired ienvy, who ridiculed himn
- to defend himself, he turned to __, a kind of writing highly congenialto his temperament
Pope wrote the __, which attacks dull, uninteresting writers of all kinds and shows the forces of stupidity,ignorance, and folly taking over theworld, adn the __, which pass judgment on certainimmoral men and women as well as on very rich eopel who lack common sense and good taste
For writers of Pope's time, the purpose of poetry was what? W/ exception of Shakespear, Pope is the most widely quoted writer in all of English lit, because he wrote in __, in which a memorable thought is expressed in a pair of rhyming lines.
- combine the pleasing with the useful
- heroic couplets
pope expresses himself in __, which uses parallel structures to rpresent a balanced contrast; by compressing elements of similarity and difference, __ helps to make a statement more forceful and (often) more memorable
__ is a contrast of ideas expressed in a gramatically balanced statement
pope is the greastest master of the _. each __ consists of two rhymed lines of _ (for variety, Pope occasinally introduces a __.) Many express a couple though in a complete sentence, which is called __.
- heroic couplet
- iambic pentameter
___ is Pope's long, philosophical poem, published when he was 45. the poem is concerned not only with "man" by which Pope means the whole human race, but the whole unvierse
An essay on Man
Who wrote A Modest Proposal and Gulliver's Travels?
__ was a courtier of enry VIII and spench much time traveling abroad as the king's ambassador/
Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542)
- greatly admired Italian poetry; he brought a new kind of poem, the love sonnet, to England from Italy; his english sonnets are actualyl adaptations of Italian sonnets
__ wrote many delightful lyrics modeled on English dancesongs, but never had any works printed or publicly distributed. He had no ambition to be known as a __, or a learned man of letters, the sort of person who published books.
In 1557, an enterprisign printer named _ published Songs and Sonnets, an anthology containing ninety-seven of Wyatt's oems. This book, now called __, has a bad rep today because __ improved the poems by changing words so the poems sounded somoother to his ears.
- RIchard Tottel
- Tottle's Miscellany
What is Whoso List to Hunt about? Who else was attracted to this person?
Anne Boleyn; King Henry
Whta is Whoso List to Hunt about?
he wanted Anne Boleyn, but when he found out King Henry wanted her, he gave up pursuit to whoever else wanted to "hunt" her. Anne did indeed become the second of Henry's sex queens.
What warning does the speaker give potential hunters of the woman?
that she is marked; and that mark is Henry
What image does the speaker use to show that he finalyl decided the cahse is hopeless?
he was saying he was trying to catch wind with a net
Poetic __ is a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. It is a rhythmic "beat"- like the steady pulse that draws you into dance music.
_ basic unit is the __: It consists of one stressed syllable and one of more unstressed syllables. The four basic metrical feet are :
__, __, __, __
Poets also use two other metrical devices: the __, or double stress, and the __, or pause
The anaylsis of a poem's meter is called __.
__ served as personal secretary to the earl of Leicester, then favorite of Queen Elizabeth.
- wrote hisfirst book, The Shepheardes Calender (1579), a set of twelve pastoral poems, one for each month).
- given an Irish castle and a vast estate in County Cork; resented by English troops: lived thirty miles from Raleigh
Edmund Spenser (1552- 1599)
- wrote the Faerie Queen
- when his first wife died, he married Elizabeth Boyle, which he devoted Amoretti and Epithalamion
- his castle was burned and his infant son was killed by the English
- he escaped to London where he died suddenly in 1599
- buried mear Chaucer in Westminster Abbey, which is known as Poets Corner
- least hiighly regarded when it comes to Chaucer and Milton
- his language is such a hybrid of Chaucerian and Elizabethan English that even when the work was brand new, some purists objected to it.
Spenser's __ is a sequence of eighty-nine sonnets recording a man's two-year courtship of a woman named Elizabeth. In sonnet __, he uses the convention the burning man and the icey lady. Sonnet __ uses another convention, the writer
s "eternizing conceit."
longest epic poem in the English language
The Faerie Queen
In Sonnet 75, what way is the love of the two people still alive?
in his poetry, and verses
__ wrote a poems about a woman named __.
- Sonnets in the Petrarchan manner contain many ingenious comparisons, which in time became known as __. A __ is a fanciful comparison of two apparently very different things.
- Francis Petrarch
- Petrarchan conceits
__ shape their emotion within a strict sturcutre: fourteen lines of rhymed iambic pentameter, organized in two stanzas, on of eight lines (an _) and one of six lines (a __).
- Petrarchan sonneteers
in most Italian sonnets, the octave describes a situation, and the sestet describes a change in the situation. This change is called the __. Sometimes the __ presents the problem and the__ a solution or even another viewpoint.
Two __ forms- the __ and __ sonnets- originated in the Renaissance. They both use iambic pentameter, but both differ from Petrarchan sonnet in having three four-lien stanzas (__) and a concluding couplet.
- English sonnet
In the Faerie Queen, the word __ means grand, heroic beings whose superhuman powers come from their own virtue and piety.
The Faerie Queene herself is __, an idealized portrait of __, and her realm is at once the England that Spenser loved and a strange, imaginary country.
__ contain multiple characters and multiplying polots spreading out in all directoins, unlike classical epics like The Odyssey.
Romantic/ chivalric epic
In the Faerie Queene, who is the foul femal creature?
The Fowle Duessa (Falsehood)
Who wrote a Madest Proposal
What is the Modest Proposal trying to bring to light? Why does he suggest this?
- the harsh conditions in Ireland and protests the English treatment of Irish
- he acts like a monster in order to expose the monstrous behavior of others
One device satirists use is _.
In the beginning of A Modest Proposal, what does Swift address?
At what age has the Swift found the solution for the kid?
- seeing beggars in thestreet, mostly females and young kids
- age of one
In a Modest Proposal, hwat is his modest proposal?
- ot eat the kids
- use their fleh as clothes
What bias does Swift write in his Modest Proposal?
he talks about lessening the number of papists among them
What is the cost of nursing a beggar's child?
What is the city?
- two shillings per annum, rags included
Who did he say is his acquaintaince that had frequent experience of that idea?
Why did he say that? What does he say a famous man named Sallmanaazor tell him?
- American because they think Americans are more savage
- in his country a girl of fifteen who was cricfid for an attempt to poison the emperor was sold to his imperial majesty's prime minister of state and other greatofficials at four hundred crowns
What other problem does the narrator take up? What is his solution, and how is it similar to his main proposal?
he addresses the vast number of poor people aged, diseased, or maimed who can't get work; kill them (by delivering them from the evils to come)
What are his six reasons for suggesting eating the kids?
- 1) it would greatly lessen the number of papists
- 2) the poorer tenants will have something valuable of their own and help pay rent
- 3) the nation's stock will be increased fifty thousand pounds per annum
- 4) the constant gbreeders will be rid of the charge of maintainign after hte first year
- 5) this food will likewise bring great custom to taverns, where the wine merchants will be prudent and procure the best recipes for making it perfect
- 6) it would be a great inducement to marriage; it would increase tenderness and care of mothers toward children; men become more fond of wives, who have competition to see who could breed the fattest baby
What is his real solution?
- taxing absentees at five shillings a pound
- using neither clothes, nor efurniture except what is of our own growth and manufacture
- rejecting the materials and instrumetns that promote foreign luxury
- curing the expensivveness of pride, vanity, idleness, and the gambling in women
- introducing a vein of thriftiness
- learn to love country
- quitting hostilities
- being cautious not to sell the country and consciences for nothing
- teaching landlords to have at least one degree of mercy twoward their tenants
- putting honesty, industry and skill into our shopkeepers
What two points support the narrator's proposal?
- 1) how they will be able to find food for a hundred thousand mouths
- 2) about a million humans whose whoe possessions would leave them in debt two millions of pounds sterling adding those who are beggars by professon to the bulk of farmers, cottagers, and laborers with their wives and kids, who are also beggars
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