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Prince Klemens von Metternich
The foreign minister of Austria who was the most influential of the representatives at the Congress of Vienna. Metternich had three goals at the Congress of Vienna. He wanted to
- Prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries.
- Restore a balance of power, so that no country would be a threat to others
- Restore Europe’s royal families to the thrones they held before Napoleon’s conquests.
These ideas created the Metternich system.
France’s king, who tried to stage a return to absolute monarchy. The attempt sparked riots that forced Charles to flee to Great Britain. He was replaced by Louis-Philippe
Replaced Charles X. He had long supported liberal reforms in France. After 18 years, he fell from popular favor. Once again, a Paris mob overturned the monarchy and established a republic (the 2nd Republic).
A Hungarian revolutionary. Took part in the Hungarian Revolution, and when Hungary was granted a separate government, he became finance minister.
The nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte. Became president of France, and four years later took the title of Emperor Napoleon III. He built railroads, encouraged industrialization, and promoted an ambitious program of public works. Gradually, because of Louis-Napoleon’s policies, unemployment decreased in France, and the country experienced real prosperity. Had power of dictator.
Louis-Napoleon, the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, became president of France. Four years later, he took the title of Emperor Napoleon III, of the 2nd empire.
Russian czar who decided to move Russia toward modernization and social change. He freed the serfs; however peasant communities, not individual peasants, received about half the farmland in the country. Nobles kept the other half. The government paid the nobles for their land, but each peasant community had 49 years to pay the government for the land it had received. So, the serfs were legally free, but the debt still tied them to the land.
Named prime minister of Sardinia. He worked tirelessly to expand Piedmont-Sardinia’s power. He used skillful diplomacy and well-chosen alliances to set about gaining control of northern Italy for Sardinia. Used Realpolitik.
A bold soldier who led a small army of Italian nationalists to capture Sicily. He agreed to unite the southern areas of Italy he had conquered with the kingdom of Piedmont- Sardinia.
Garibaldi and his followers. They were a small army of Italian nationalists who always wore bright red shirts in battle.
Strongly conservative members of Prussia’s wealthy landowning class. They supported the king of Germany, Wilhelm I.
Otto Von Bismarck
A conservative Junker named as prime minister of Germany. He lied and cheated to get what he wanted and played a big part in uniting Germany. He got Germany into and won the Franco-Prussian War, and Seven Weeks’ War, helping to unite Germany.
King of Prussia. The liberal parliament refused him money for reforms that would double the strength of the army. He saw the parliament’s refusal as a major challenge to his authority. He appointed Bismarck as his prime minister. Crowned emperor, of the Second Reich.
Kaiser of Germany, forced Bismarck to resign. Let Germany’s treaty with Russia lapse – Russia formed a defensive military alliance with France. William began a tremendous shipbuilding program in an effort to make the German navy equal to that of the mighty British fleet. Great Britain formed an alliance with France. Triple Entente was formed, creating an alliance between Britain, France and Russia. A Triple Alliance had been formed between Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy.
Pressured by the Hungarians, he split his empire in half, declaring Austria and Hungary independent states, with himself as ruler of both. The empire was now called Austria-Hungary. Nationalist disputes continued to weaken the empire for more than 40 years.
Usually wealthy property owners and nobility. They argued for protecting the traditional monarchies of Europe.
The belief that people’s greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history.
Mostly middle-class business leaders and merchants. They wanted to give more power to elected parliaments, but only the educated and the landowners would vote.
Favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people. They believed that governments should practice the ideals of the French Revolution – liberty, equality, and brotherhood.
When a nation had its own independent government. A nation-state defends the nation’s territory and way of life, and it represents the nation to the rest of the world.
Congress of Vienna
A series of meetings in Vienna. They were called to set up policies to achieve the goal of the new European order – one of collective security and stability for the entire continent.
A region controlled by the Ottoman Empire that included Greece, along with other areas.
Spurred by nationalist spirit, they demanded independence and rebelled against the Ottoman Turks. Popular support for Greece grew and the powerful nations of Europe took the side of the Greeks. A combined British, French, and Russian fleet destroyed the Ottoman fleet, three years later Britain, France, and Russia signed a treaty guaranteeing an independent kingdom of Greece.
One of the main ideas of the Metternich system was to suppress nationalism. He also wanted to restore a balance of power, so that no country would be a threat to others. He also wanted to stop revolutions.
An agreement signed by Prussia, Austria and Russia pledging to base their relations with other nations on Christian principles in order to combat the forces of revolution.
As many as possible of the rulers that Napoleon had driven from their thrones were restored to power.
Balance of Power
Make it so that no country would be a threat to others.
The ruling Turks of the Ottoman Empire controlled Greeks, Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians, and Armenians. The Ottoman Empire was comprised of a large variety of ethnic groups. A lot of these ethnic groups had nationalistic feelings, such as the Greeks, who ended up being granted their own nation. These nationalistic feelings helped lead to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
39 German states that formed a loose grouping. The Austrian Empire dominated the confederation.
Concert of Europe
A series of alliances devised by Metternich that ensured that nations would help one another if any revolutions broke out.
Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
By the 1830s revolutions swept across Europe. However, these uprisings were crushed, such as the attempt to unite the many separate states on the Italian peninsula. In 1848, ethnic uprisings erupted throughout Europe. Revolutionaries failed to unite themselves or their nations. Conservatives regained their nerve and their power. By 1849, Europe had practically returned to the conservatism that had controlled governments before 1848.
Lombardy and Venetia
During the unification of Italy, the French emperor agreed to help drive Austria out of the northern Italian provinces. Cavour then provoked a war with the Austrians. A combined French-Sardinian army won two quick victories. Sardinia succeeded in taking all of northern Italy, except Venetia. It later became part of Italy.
The largest and most powerful of the Italian states. Italian nationalists looked for leadership from the kingdom of Sardinia. Italy ended up uniting under Sardinia.
Schleswig and Holstein
First step Bismarck took toward molding an empire. Prussia and Austria formed an alliance and went to war against Denmark to win two border provinces, Schleswig and Holstein. Prussia governed Schleswig, while Austria controlled Holstein. Bismarck purposely stirred up border conflicts with Austria over Schleswig, which led to the Seven Weeks’ War.
Last part of a territory taken over by Italian forces before the unification of Italy. With this victory, the city of Rome came under Italian control. Soon after, Rome became the capital of the united kingdom of Italy. The pope, however, would continue to govern a section of Rome known as Vatican City.
The ruling Romanov dynasty of Russia instituted a policy forcing Russian culture on all the ethnic groups in the empire. This policy actually strengthened ethnic nationalist feelings and helped to disunify Russia.
The Austrian Empire brought together many different ethnic groups. Prussia defeated Austria in the Austro- russian War. With its victory, Prussia gained control of the newly organized North German Confederation, a union of Prussia and 21 smaller German political units. Then, pressured by the Hungarians, the empire was split in half, declaring Austria and Hungary independent states, with one ruler of both. The empire was now called Austria-Hungary.
7 Weeks War
Bismarck stirred up border conflicts with Austria. The tensions provoked Austria into declaring war on Prussia. The Prussians won a devastating victory. The Austrians lost the region of Venetia, which was given to Italy. Prussia took control of northern Germany. This marked the first time that eastern and western parts of the Prussian kingdom were joined.
A few southern German states remained independent of Prussian control. Bismarck created the impression that the French ambassador had insulted the Prussian king. The French reacted to Bismarck’s deception by declaring war on Prussia. This was the final stage in German unification. The people in southern Germany finally accepted Prussian leadership.
Blood and Iron
Bismarck’s way of going about on uniting Germany. He said that decisions would not be solved by speeches, but by “blood and iron” or war and fighting.
When Germany was unified, their empire was called the Second Reich.
When people lie and cheat to get what they want in politics.
Goals and impact of the Congress of Vienna
The goal of the meetings in Vienna was for collective security and stability for the entire continent. Metternich had three goals are the congress of Vienna. First, he wanted to prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries. Second, he wanted to restore a balance of power, so that no country would be a threat to others. Third, he wanted to restore Europe’s royal families to the thrones they had held before Napoleon’s conquests. The impact was that France’s power was greatly decreased and was surrounded by strong countries. The power of Britain and Prussia increased. Nationalism began to spread to areas that the Congress had put under foreign control. Eventually, the nationalistic feelings would explode into revolutions, and new nations would be formed.
Positive and negative results of nationalism
Positive results – people within a nation overcoming their differences for the common good. The creation of many new nations that consisted of a single ethnic group.
Negative results – Forced assimilation of minority cultures into a nation’s majority culture. Ethnic cleansing, such as the Armenian Massacres. Competition between nations leading to warfare. The rise of extreme nationalistic movements, such as Nazism.
Characteristics of liberalism, conservatism and radicalism
Conservatives were usually wealthy property owners and nobility. Liberals were mostly middle-class business leaders and merchants. Conservatives argued for protecting the tradition monarchies of Europe. Liberals wanted to give more power to elected parliaments, but only the educated and landowners would vote. Radicals favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people. They believed that governments should practice the ideals of the French Revolution – liberty, equality, and brotherhood.
Types of nationalist movements
The types of nationalist movements are civic, ethnic, cultural, religious, and ideological.
Revolutions and results throughout Europe in 1830 and 1848
In the 1830s, the order created by the Congress of Vienna was breaking down. Liberals and nationalists were revolting against conservative governments. Nationalist riots broke out against Dutch rule, and in the Italian peninsula, to name a few. But the uprisings were crushed. In 1848, ethnic uprisings erupted throughout Europe.
Steps leading to the unification of Italy and Germany
- · Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia adopted a liberal
- · Cavour named prime minister.
- · Austria driven out of Northern Italian provinces. Sardinia won 2 quick victories and succeeded in taking all of North Italy, except Venetia.
- · Garibaldi (red shirts) captured Sicily and agreed to unit southern areas with Sardinia.
- · 7 weeks war – Venetia became part of Italy.
- · Franco-Prussian – Papal states
- - 39 German States joined to form a loose grouping called the German confederation. Austrian Empire dominated the Confederation.
- - Wilhelm I succeeded came into throne. Bismarck made prime minister. Schleswig- Holstein war, Austria = Holstein, Prussia = Schleswig.
- - 7 weeks war over Schleswig and Holstein. Prussia
- wins. Made North German Confederation.
- - Franco-Prussian war to get South Germany.
- - 1871 – German unification – 2nd Reich.
- - Southern Germany accepted Prussian leadership.