Eye movements S2M1

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  1. Strabismus
    Congenital weakness of eye muscles that can result in decreased vision in one eye
  2. Esotropia/Exotropia
    Abnormal medial/lateral deviation of the eye
  3. Hypertropia
    Abnormal elevation of an eye
  4. Saccades
    (Scanning) Fixation jumps from one point to another
  5. Vergence
    The axis of fixation converges when an object moves toward the eye, or diverge when it moves away
  6. What is seen in oculomotor (III) nerve palsy
    • Ptosis
    • Eye is down and out
  7. What is seen in trochlear nerve palsy
    The eye is up and in
  8. What is the most commonly cranial nerve injured in head trauma
    Trochlear due to how thin it is and how it wraps around the mesencephalon
  9. Patients with what eye muscle damaged often fall down the stairs
    Trochlear (eye is looking up and in not down where it should)
  10. What nerves lie in and directly around the cavernous sinus
    • III, IV, V1, VI, and V2
    • All of the nerves that exit the superior opthalmic fissure plus V2
  11. Proptosis
    Bulging of the eye
  12. Myasthenia gravis effects what muscles
    The muscles that are used the most like the eye and eyelid
  13. What are often the first features affected when Botulinum toxin is introduced
    Paralysis of eye muscles causing diplopia and ptosis
  14. What initiates voluntary eye movements, saccades
    • Frontal eye field (Br. 8)
    • This is in front of the premotor cortex in the frontal lobe
  15. What portion of the brain initiates smooth pursuit movements
    The secondary visual cortex (occipital lobe)
  16. What are the brainstem centers for eye movements
    • Paramedian Pontine Reticular Formation (PPRF)
    • Rostral Interstitial Nucleus of the MLF
  17. What does the Paramedian Pontine Reticular Formation in the pons control, and what are its inputs and outputs to
    • Horizontal gaze center
    • Input from cortex, vestibular nuclei, sup. colliculus
    • Output to ipsilateral abducens nucleus
    • "Para=Beside=Horizontal"
  18. What does the Rostral Interstitial Nucleus of the MLF do, and what does it connect
    • Vertical gaze center
    • Connects eye muscle nuclei with each other and with the vestibular nuclei, and neck muscle motor neurons
    • "Rostral=Up=Vertical"
  19. What are the effectors of the Rostral Interstitial Nucleus of the MLF
    CN III, IV, VI
  20. Damage to the right frontal visual cortex affects movement of the eyes how
    • There would be an inability to turn the eyes to the left (to the opposite side of the lesion)
    • So the patient would be looking at the lesioned side
  21. A lesion to the Paramedian Pontine Reticular Formation (PPRF) would effect eye movement how
    The eyes will look to the opposite side of the lesion
  22. Damage to the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus (MLF) would effect eye movement how
    • The eye on the side of the lesion doesn't adduct
    • Eye will stay in the center
    • Convergence however is in tact
  23. What is the pathway for voluntary eye movements
    • Cortex
    • Cross in brainstem
    • Paramedian Pontine Reticular Formation (PPRF)
    • Nucleus (specific nucleus of the eye muscle)
    • Contralateral eye innervated
    • Ipsilateral eye the tract crosses again
    • Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)
    • Ipsilateral Oculomotor nucleus
    • Ipsilateral eye innervation
  24. Dysarthria
    Motor speech disorder
  25. Internuclear Opthalmoplegia (INO)
    • Damage to the MLF
    • In attempt to adduct the ipsilateral eye, it doesn't work
    • Convergence of eye movement is intact however because the input for convergence doesn't travel in the MLF
  26. One and a half syndrome
    • Damage to the abducens nucleus and MLF on one side with the abducens nucleus intact on the opposite side
    • Patient can only look away from the lesion with the eye on the opposite side, no other horizontal movement remains
  27. Parinaud's Syndrome
    • Lesion of the dorsal midbrain and vertical gaze center
    • Loss of vertical gaze
    • Dilated pupils
    • Eyelid abnormalities
    • Impaired convergence
  28. Mydriasis is innervated by what ganglion
    • (Dilation of eye)
    • Sympathetic
    • Superior cervical ganglion
  29. Miosis is innervated by what ganglion
    • (Constriction of eye)
    • Parasympathetic
    • Oculomotor/ciliary ganglion
  30. What muscle pushes the eyeball forward and what is its innervated by
    • Orbitalis muscle
    • Superior cervical ganglion (sympathetic)
  31. What is the pathway of the constriction of the eye
    • Optic nerve
    • Pretectal nucleus
    • Edinger-Westphal nucleus (both sides)
    • Ciliary ganglion
    • Sphincter Pupilae muscle
  32. Horners syndrome
    • Disruption of sympathetic pathway to the eye
    • Ptosis
    • Miosis
    • Enophthalmus (eye going backward)
    • Dry face on affect side
  33. What affect can a tumour on the apex of the lung have on vision
    Horners syndrome due to the compression of the sympathetic trunk
  34. Argyll Robertson pupil
    • Neither eye will constrict to light but does constrict on convergence
    • Eyes are already constricted more then normal
    • Commonly caused by syphilis, CNS complications
  35. Marcus Gunn Pupil
    • Unilateral lesion anterior to optic chiasm
    • Light in affect eye will not cause pupillary constriction in either eye but the unaffected eye will show constriction in both
    • MS patients often display this
  36. The cornea reflex is innervated by what nerve
    Trigeminal 1
Card Set:
Eye movements S2M1
2011-08-12 15:29:47
Ross S2M1

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