Biology Exam 4

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  1. What do nucleotides consist of?
    • Sugar (deoxyribose)
    • Phosphate group
    • Nitrogenous base
  2. 4 base pairs of DNA
    • Adenine, Guanine=purines
    • Thymine, Cytosine= pyridamines
  3. 5', 3' rule
    3rd and 5th carbons of sugar are places where nucleotides attach. Always goes 5 touching 3, not 3 touching 5.
  4. What kinds of bonds hold nitrogenous bases together?
    Hydrogen bonds
  5. Mnemonic for nitrogen base pairs
    • Always Together
    • Good Couple
  6. Two scientist that put together the first model of DNA
    Watson and Crick
  7. Semiconservative
    when DNA replicates and leaves one original strand to build a new strand.
  8. Replication process
    • 1) Helicase proteins unwind DNA
    • 2) Binding proteins keep DNA apart
    • 3) Primase makes complementary RNA
    • 4) DNA Polymerase adds complementary DNA nucleotides and proofreads
    • 5) Exonuclease removes RNA primers
    • 6) Ligase fills in gaps and seals strands
  9. Leading strand
    replication is fast and smooth because it's going 5' ---> 3'
  10. Lagging strand
    replication uses Okizaki fragments because it's going 3' ---> 5'
  11. Werner's disease
    mutation in helicase, advanced aging
  12. -RNA is ___________ nucleic acid composed of RNA nucleotides:
    -RNA utilizes ________ sugar
    -RNA nucleotides use four bases:
    ______, Adenine, Cytosine, and Guainine
    Single-stranded; ribose; Uracil
  13. mRNA
    transcribed message from DNA
  14. rRNA
    structure where translation occurs
  15. tRNA
    transfers amino acids according to the mRNA message
  16. Transcription
  17. RNA Polymerase
    adds in complementary RNA nucleotides to match the DNA template and proofreads
  18. Intron
    non-coding sequence in RNA processing
  19. Exon
    coding sequences in RNA processing
  20. RNA processing
    • quality control before RNA leaves nucleus
    • 1) add cap
    • 2) add tail
    • 3) cut out introns and paste in extrons
  21. How many base pairs is mRNA read as?
    3 nucleotides/base pairs (codons) that code for 1 amino acid
  22. How many codons can an amino acid have?
    more than 1! NOT THE OTHER WAY AROUND
  23. Anticodon
    recognizes mRNA message
  24. Ribosome
    made of rRNA and protein
  25. mutation
    change in DNA sequence
  26. point mutation
    base pair substitution (1 for 1 switch)
  27. silent mutation
    codes for same amino acid
  28. nonsense mutation
    code for premature stop
  29. missence mutation
    code for incorrect amino acid
  30. frameshift mutation
    adding or deleting a base
  31. replication errors
    • -1 in 1bil.
    • -DNA polymerase proofreads
  32. environmental factors for mutation
    UV light, carcinogens

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Biology Exam 4
2011-05-26 03:26:38
biology genetics

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