CH 21A Digestive System
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What is the Anatomy of the Digestive System? (7 Parts)
- 1. Alimentary Canal (Tube from mouth to anus)
- 2. Gallbladder
- 3. Liver
- 4. Pancreas
- 5. Salivary Glands
- 6. Teeth
- 7. Tongue
What are the four functions of the digestive system?
1. _________ - Process of orally taking materials into the body. This term applies to taking in food, liquids, and oral medications.
2. _________ - mechanical and chemical process that occurs as food is mixed with digestive enzymes and coverted into an absorbable state. Mechincal includes chewing in oral cavity.
3. _________ - is the process by which the products of digestion move into the bloodstream or lymph vessels and then into the body's cells.
4. _________ - the process of eliminating indigestable or unabsorbed material from the body.
- 1. Ingestion
- 2. Digestion
- 3. Absorption
- 4. Defecation
Also called the "Disassembly line" this system provides processes in which proteins, carbohydrates, and fats are broken down and used as fuel which is carried to rest of body by circulatory system. PNS system initiates digestive functions during periods of low stress. Also can be viewed as a refinery.
What is the Digestive System?
One of the two forms of digestion, this begins chewing in the oral cavity, stomach churning, and movements in intestinal tube (peristalsis)
What is Mechanical Digestion?
One of the two types of digestion, this is the process of the body's enzymes breaking food down further making it capable of being taken into the bloodstream.
What is Chemical Digestion?
Also known as the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is the mostly coiled, muscular passageway leading from the mouth to the anus made of mostly smooth muscle. Approximately 30 feet long and itself has four layers, or Tunics.
What is the Alimentary Canal?
What are the four Tunics (layers) of the Alimentary Canal from innermost to outermost that hosts to blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and glands that secrete digestive enzymes?
- 1. Mucosa
- 2. Submucosa
- 3. Muscularis
- 4. Serosa
What ( 6 ) parts which are included along the Alimentary Canal?
- 1. Oral Cavity
- 2. Pharynx
- 3. Esophagus
- 4. Stomach
- 5. Small Intestine
- 6. Large Intestine
Secreted by glands for the process of digestion, this is the catalyst that accelerates chemical reactions.
What is an Enzyme?
A ring of muscle fibers that regulates movement of materials from one compartment of the GI tract to another.
What is a Sphincter?
Most common muscular contraction of the digestive system. These wavelike and rhytmic contractions help mix and propel food through GI tract.
What is Peristalsis?
A ball-like masticated lump of food once swallowed moves through by Peristalic contractions occur as a rhythmic, seqential contraction of smooth muscle to move the materials back and forth until they are throughly mixed.
What is a Bolus?
The largest serous membrane in the body, this membrane envelops the entire abdominal wall and is lubricated with a serous fluid, permitting the digestive structures and other visceral organs to glide easily against the abdominal wall without friction. Contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves.
What is the Peritoneum?
Also known as the mouth, is the port of entry for food and drink. Contains the tongue, teeth, gums, and openings got the Salivary ducts. Digestion begins here.
What is the Oral Cavity?
Another name for chewing, is aided by the tongue to start digestion with the digestive enzymes present in saliva to break down food. Is part of Mechanical Digestion.
What is Mastication?
A clear, viscous fluid secreted by the salivary and mucous glands in the mouth. Contains water, mucus, organic salts and digestive enzymes. Functions are to act as a lubricant and an adhesive by causing food to stick together and to form a bolus for Deglutition (swallowing) and stimulates the taste buds and protects the mucosa by acting as a buffer.
What is Saliva?
What are the three pairs of salivary glands that produce Saliva?
- 1. Submandibular glands
- 2. Sublingual glands
- 3. large parotid glands
Also known as the taste buds, are chemoreceptors that detect the primary tastes of sweet, sour, bitter and salty. Located in spherical pockets on the superior and lateral surfaces of the tongue. However, taste is a response of many neurons and not just a signal from a single gustatory nerve.
What are the Gustatory Organs?
1. How many teeth do adults have?
2. How many teeth do children have?
- 1. 32 secondary or permanent teeth
- 2. 20 primary or deciduous teeth that are usually shed between 6-12 years old.
What are the five categories of Teeth according to shape and function?
- 1. Incisors
- 2. Cuspids (canines)
- 3. Bicuspids (premolars)
- 4. Multicuspids (molars)
- 5. Third Molars (Wisdom Teeth) - becuase they erupt when a person is old enough to be wise (ages 17 and 25)
1. _________ is also known as the throat, is the tube structure that transports food, liquid, and air to their respective destinations. Takes food from oral cavity to esophagus for swallowing.
2. _________ is also know as the gullet, is the muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach by piercing the diaphragm bypassing the organs and transporting food to the stomach.
What are the three layers of the muscular tunic of the stomach?
- 1. Oblique
- 2. Circular
- 3. Longitudinal
A J-shaped organ that is an enlargement of the GI tract, bound at each end by sphincters. when empty, size of a large sausage, when full can hold up to 1 gallon of food. The longitudinal folds in the lining of stomach called rugae permit this expansion.
What is the Stomach?
1. _______ are longitudinal folds in lining of stomach that permit expansion.
2. As food is further blended and digested, a bolus of food is reduced to a thin viscous fluid called _________.
3. _________ cells are the endocrine cells that secrete the hormone gastrin, which inititates the production and secretion of gastric juice and stimulates bile.
4. _________ cells and the ________ cells are the two types of Exocrine cells in the stomach.
- 1. Rugae
- 2. Chyme
- 3. G Cells
- 4. Cheif Cells / Parietal Cells
What are the only four Subtances absorbed by the stomach lining?
- 1. Water
- 2. Some Minerals
- 3. Alcohol
- 4. Some Medications like Asprin
One of the two types of Exocrine cells in the stomach, these cells secrete intrinsic factor, a product needed for (B12 absorption) from the small instesting to the bloodstream and hydrochloric acid, a compound of hydrogen and chlorine (breaks down proteins and activates enzymes)
What are Parietal Cells?
One of the two Exocrine cells in the stomach, produce the gastric enzyme pepsinogen, a precursor to pepsin (protein digestion). Converts pepsinogen into pepsin when it comes into contact with hydrochorlic acid and begins the chemical digestion of proteins.
What are Cheif Cells?
1. __________ sphincter is also know as the superior or cardiac sphincter, found at the junction between the esophagus and stomach.
2. __________ sphincter located between the stomach and small intestine.
3. The three major regions of the stomach include __________, ____________, and the ________.
4. Exteriorly, the shape of the stomach reveals a __________ curvature and a _________ curvature.
- 1. Cardioesophageal
- 2. Pyloric
- 3. Fundus, Body, Pylorus
- 4. Greater / Lesser
Digestive Enzyme matching
1. ___________ or rennin is an enzyme found in gastric juices of infants, used to aid in milk curdling
2. ___________ produced by Cheif cells, begins chemical digestion of proteins by converting them into peptides
3. ___________ produced by Salvary Glands, begins carbohydrate digestion
4. ___________ produced by Stomach (parietal cells) Breaks down protein and activates gastric enzymes.
5. ___________ fat emulsifier produced by Liver, Physically breaks apart large fat globules into smaller ones. breaks apart, does not digest it.
6. ___________ percursor enzyme produced in Pancreas, breaks protein into smaller chains of Amino Acids
7. ___________ enzyme produced by Pancreas, Converts triglycerides into monoglycerides and fatty acids, acts upon lipids.
8. ___________ produced by Stomach (parietal cells), needed for absorption of Vitamin B12 from the small intestine to the bloodsteam.
- 1. Chymosin
- 2. Pepsinogen/Pepsin
- 3. Salivary Amylase
- 4. Hydrochrolic Acid
- 5. Bile
- 6. Trypsinogen
- 7. Panceatic Lipase
- 8. Intrinsic Factor
The longest section of the alimentary canal, is situated in the central abdomen, framed by the large instestine. Bound by both ends by sphincters, is responsible for 90% of all absorption in the body. Contains Plicae Circulares and Villi and Mircovilli within layers of longtindunal and circular smooth muscle.
What is the Small Intestine?
What are the two Sphincters of the Small Instestine?
- 1. Pyloric Sphincters- Superior connects stomach to small intestine
- 2. Ileocecal Sphincters- Inferior connects small intestine to large instestine at the cecum
What are the three divisions of the Small Intestine?
- 1. Duodenum
- 2. Jejunum
- 3. Ileum
1. ____________ are the circular folds found in the lumen of the small instestine.
2. ____________ are the numerous fingerlike projections found in the small instestine lining that house blood and capillaries
3. Mucus-producing _________ cells are found in the spaces between some of the villi.
4. The lymph capillaries in the villi are called _______, which assist in absorption of fat.
5. The surfaces of the villi possess ___________ that form a brush border.
- 1. Plicae circulares
- 2. Villi
- 3. Goblet
- 4. Lacteals
- 5. Microvilla
First section of the small intestine, is between 10 and 12 inches long and contains the Sphincter of Oddi and major duodenal papilla. Where absorption begins.
What is the Duodenum?
A sphincter located in the duodenum of the small intestine, this regulates the flow of secretions from the pancreas, liver and gallbladder.
What is the Sphincter of Oddi?
located in the duodenum of the small intestine, this is the site for the secretions from the pancreas, liver and gallbladded. A dialation that is formed by the juncture of the pancreatic and common bile ducts as they open into the small intestines.
What is the Major Duodenal Papilla?
The intermediate portion of the small intestine, runs from the duodenum to the ileum and is approximately 6 feet long. Are slightly thicker than those of the ileum and possess smaller lumen. Villi are larger to increase absorption.
What is Jejunum?
Large fan-shaped section of peritoneum that connect all divisions of the small intestines to each other and to the posterior abdominal wall. Contains two Omentums; Greater Omentum and Lesser Omentum.
What is the Mesenteries?
What are the 3 structures that increase the surface area of the Small Intestine?
- 1. Plicae circulares
- 2. Villi
- 3. Microvilli
One of the two omentums of the mesenteries in the small intestine, also referred to as the fatty apron, is a double-layered structuere that connects to the greater curvature of the stomach and duodenum, drapes down over the coils of the small intestine and then attaches to the transverse colon.
What is the Greater Omentum?
One of the two omentums of the mesenteries in the small intestine, this is a fatty, membraneous extension of the peritoneum and attaches from the right side of stomach and first section of the duodenum to the liver.
What is the Lesser Omentum?
Intestinal glands or the duodenal glands, these glands secrete alkaline mucus.
What are the Brunner's Glands?
What are the (five) digestive enzymes that promote the digestion of proteins and carbohydrates secreted within the Small Intestine?
- 1. Enterokinase -
- 2. Peptidase
- 3. Maltase
- 4. Sucrase
- 5. Lactase
What are the three hormones cecreted by the intestinal mucosa of the small intestine?
- 1. Enterocrinin - stimulates flow of intestinal juice
- 2. Cholecystokinin - stumulates contraction of the gallbladder and pancreatic enzyme secretion
- 3. Secretin - stimulates the pancreas to stimulate an alkaline liquid that nuturalizes chyme.
What is the most important digestive organ in the body due to the multitude of enzymes and cells is produces and contains?
What is the Pancreas?
What are the 11 products that are absorbed in the Small Intestine?
- 1. Glucose
- 2. Fats
- 3. Amino Acids
- 4. Fat-soluble vitamins
- 5. Water-soluble vitamins
- 6. Sodium
- 7. Postassium
- 8. Water
- 9. Vitamin B12
- 10. Bile
- 11. Alcohol (80% of total)
Also known as the Colon, the final stretch that undigested and unabsorbed food takes before the body eliminates it. Lining produces a mucus that helps undigested matter move through, absorbs larges amounts of water and some vitamins and minerals. Has two structures contained within it which are the Taenia Coli and the Haustra.
What are the Large Intestine?
1. ________ are located in the muscularis tunic of the large intestine. These thick, longitundinal bands which resemble a thread-gathering fabric.
2. The gathers or tucks along the length of the colon make a series of pouches, called ___________. Once filled, these pounches contract to push the contents to the next haustrum.
What are the five divisions of the Large Intestine?
- 1. Cecum
- 2. Colon Propers
- - Ascending Colon
- - Hepatic flexure
- - Transverse Colon
- - Splenic flexure
- - Descending Colon
- - Sigmoid flexure
- - Sigmoid Colon
- 3. Rectum
- 4. Anal Canal
- 5. Anus
1. The _________ is the section of the colon, is a small saclike structure located in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen that is attached to the Ileocecal sphincter. Suspended from and opening into the inferior portion of the cecum is a lymph gland called the ______________, which is a wormlike structure that varies from 3-6 inches long.
- 1. Cecum
- 2. Vermiform Appendix
1. Second section of the colon is the _______ colon, continuing from the cecum up the lower right abdomen turning from the hepatic or right colic flexure, moving horizontally from right to left, draping to form the __________ colon.
2. The colon then takes a downward turn at the splenic or left colin flexure and provides the path for the ____________ colon.
3. At the iliac crest, the colon turns back toward the right at the sigmoid flexure and becomes the ___________ colon.
4. Then the final S-shaped downward curve, the colon reaches the ______ and terminates at the ________, opening to the outside of the _______
- 1. Ascending / Transverse
- 2. Descending
- 3. Sigmoid
- 4. Rectum / Anal Canal / Anus
1. The ________, a devision of the Large Intestine, usually containing three circular folds that overlap when empty and grown in size when filled with waste to be excreted. The main function is storage.
2. The ________ canal's main function is also storage and contains two sphincters an ________ sphincter, containing visceral muscle, and an __________ sphincter, contiaining skeletal muscle.
3. As contents move into the canal the two sphincters muscles distend, stimulating _____________ receptors and intiating the __________ reflex.
4. If the urge is suppressed, copius amounts of water is absorbed from the colon, resulting in __________.
- 1. Rectum
- 2. Anal / Internal / External
- 3. Pressure-sensitive / Defecation
- 4. Constipation
What are the three Accesory Organs of the Digestive System?
- 1. Liver
- 2. Gallbladder
- 3. Pancreas
The largest internal organ in the body, weighs approximately 3 pounds. Located in the upper right quadrant of the abdominal cavity. This reddish-brown organ consists of hepatocytes and Kupffer's Cells.
What is the Liver?
1. The liver consists of __________ cells or liver cells that are arranged around thousands of specialized venous channels called _______ which are larger than ordinary capillaries.
2. Lining them are phagocytic cells called _________ cells. These specialized macrophages destroy _________ and move over foreign material out of the blood before sending it through the _________ vein.
3. Because of the vascularity of this organ, the ________ holds approximately 1 pint of blood at any given moment.
4. One of its digestive functions is the production of _________ approximately 1 quart per day. It enters the left and right ________ ducts which join to form the ___________ duct that leads to the _________ of the small instestine.
5. Not an enzyme, but an _________ of fat globules, physically breaking them down.
- 1. Hepatic / Sinusoids
- 2. Kupffer's / pathogens / hepatic
- 3. Liver
- 4. Bile / Hepatic / common bile duct / duodenum
- 5. Emulsifier
Produced form the hemoglobin in worn-out red blood cells in the liver, it physically breaks apart large fat globules into smaller ones and provides a larger surface area for the fat-digesting enzymes to work. It also gives urine and the stool their chararistic colors.
What is Bile?
1. One of the accessory organs of the digestive system, the _____________ stores bile manufactured by the liver, a pear shaped sac located in a depression on the inferior surface of the liver.
2. The sphincter of _____ controls the ________ of bile. When the sphincter is closed, bile backs up into the _________, where it is stored until needed.
3. The intestinal mucosa secretes the hormone _____________ which stimulates the release of bile from the organ.
- 1. Gallbladder
- 2. Oddi / release / gallbladder
- 3. Cholecystokinin
One of the accesory organs of the Digestive System, this organ is both an endocrine and exocrine gland. Is a carrot-shaped organ located inferior and posterior to the greater curvature of the stomach. Is considered the most important digestive gland because it secretes enzymes that break down all categories of digestible foods, including proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
What is the Pancreas?
1. __________ cells secrete pancreatic enzymes. The __________ duct runs the length of the Pancreas, draining smaller ducts and emptying the pancreatic enzymes into the ___________.
2. Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in an __________ fluid to ____________ the acid chyme from the stomach. The hormone _________ produced by the intestinal mucosa, stimulates the production and secretion of the enzymes.
3. The pancreas produces approximately 1.0 to 1.5 quarts of ________ enzymes per day. Pancreatic ________ converts polysaccharides into dsiacchades. Pancreatic _______ helps convert fats into fatty acids.
- 1. Acini / Pancreatic / duodenum
- 2. Alkaline / neutralize / secretin
- 3. digestive / Amylase / Lipase
1. The major purpose of eating is to ______ the body. Ultimately, nutrient delivery takes place at the ________ level.
2. To be beneficial, food must be ___________ into its component parts.
3. The two functions of the digestive system are to _________ nutrients and __________ the unused matter.
4. Nutrients ________, ________, and _______ DO NOT have to be digested before they are used in the body.
5. But the nutrients _______, _______ and _______ need to be mechanically and chemically broken down.
- 1. Feed / cellular
- 2. dissasembled
- 3. dissasemble / eliminate
- 4. Vitamins, minerals, water
- 5. Proteins, carbohydrates, fats
One of the Macronutrients of the body, is a Natually occurring organic compounds that contain large combinations of amino acids which are vital for proper growth.. Ten amino acids are Nonessential, eight are non-essential. Cheif structural components of the body, or the Building Blocks of the Body. They build and repair muscles, blood, skin, hairs, and nails.
What are Proteins?
What are the two Micronutrients of the Body?
What are the three Macronutrients of the body?
- 1. Proteins
- 2. Carbohydates
- 3. Fats
Are considered the building blocks of proteins and are the major components for building muscles, blood, skin, hair, nails and visceral organs.
What are enzymes?
Also known as starches and sugars, are classified according to molecular structure Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and are considered the body's preferred source of energy and required for metabolism of other nutrients such as proteins, and fats. Mediated by the hormone insulin, are absorbed immediately or stored as glycogen (stored glucose).
What are carbohydrates?
1. ___________ are simple sugars such as glucose (blood), fructose (fruit) and galactose (milk)
2. ___________ the union of two ___________ are sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk), and maltose (malt sugar)
3. ___________ or ________ are three of more simple sugar molecules are dextrins, glycogen, cellulose and gums.
- 1. Monosaccharides
- 2. Disaccharides / monosaccharides
- 3. Polysaccharides / Tricassharides
One of the Macronutrients, is composed of lipids or fatty acids and glycerol molecule (2 lipids, 1 glycerol) can range in consistancy from a solid to a liquid and helps cushion and insulate viscerel organs. Classified as Saturated (solid) and Unsaturated (liquid)
What are Fats?
1. Bad fats or _________ fats include lard (animal fats), processed oils (hydrogenated) and unsaturated oild that have been used multiple times.
2. Good fats or ________ fats include olive oil, peanut oil, flaxseed oil or sesame oil.
3. Sources of __________ include grains, cereals, vegetables, fruits, potatoes and legumes.
4. Sources of __________ include meat, poultry, eggs, fish, soy, and dairy products
5. __________ are either Fat-soluble or Water-soluble
- 1. Saturated
- 2. Unsaturated
- 3. Carbohydrates
- 4. Proteins
- 5. Vitamins
One of the Micronutrients, these are also organic compounds essential for normal physiological and metabolic functioning of the body. Most cannot be made by the body and must be obtained by diet and supplements. Can be considered as fat soluble or water soluble. Fat soluble is stored in the liver to be used later, water-soluble can be moved through the body, and irradicated quicker. If not used, body eliminates them in the urine (bright yellow urine)
What are Vitamins?
1. _______ soluble vitamins can be stored in the body, whereas _______ soluble vitamins must be ingested regularly.
2. _______ soluble viatmins are Vitamins A, D, E and K.
3. _______ soluble vitamins are vitamins B-complex and C.
4. Vitamin ___, Vitamin ___ and __________ are all antioxidants (substance that inhibits oxidation). Antioxidants irradicates _______ that can cause damage to your body's molecules that they attach to and can cause problems with metabolism
5. Viatmin ___ functions as a hormone, Vitamin ___ enhances the immune system
- 1. Fat / Water
- 2. Fat
- 3. Water
- 4. E / C / beta carotene | Free Radicals
- 5. D / A
One of the Micronutrients, are essential nonorganic compounds found in nature that the body uses. Are needed in trace amounts and are used to build bone, during muscle activity, to support various organs and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. Also play a vital role in regulating many body functions, many also function as coenzymes. Most are considered Elements.
What are Minerals?
1. Minerals ________, _______ and _____ are used to build bone.
2. Minerals _______ and _______ are used during muscle activity.
3. Minreral _______, ________ and ________ are used to support various organs such as Pancreas.
4. Minerals are referred by name of a ______, _______ radical or phosphate, rather than by name of the compound
- 1. Calcium, Magnesium, and Boron
- 2. Calcium and magnesium
- 3. Manganese, Chromium and Vanadium
- 4. Metal / Nonmetal
A nutrient of its own classification, this is often not thought of as food, but is an essential nutrient that every part of the body needs. Fluids based on this surround every cell in the body. These fluids require continiuous supply for proper body PH, nutrient transport, lymphatic transport and elimination. Body is made of 70% to 80% of this.
What is Water?
Each day are person should drink how many ounces of water per 1 lb of body weight a day?
0.5 ounces or half their body weight in ounces (200 lbs would be 100 ounces.)
What are the Five Enzymes that are produced by the Pancreas?
- 1. Trypsinogen
- 2. Chymotrypsin
- 3. Carboxypeptidase
- 4. Pancreatic Amylase
- 5. Pancreatic Lipase
What are the Six Nutrients of the Body?
- 1. Proteins
- 2. Fats
- 3. Carbohydrates
- 4. Vitamins
- 5. Minerals
- 6. Water
What are the 2 Contractions of the Digestive System?
1. Tonic - Sustained (ex Sphincter)
2. Rhythmic - Wavelike (ex - Peristalis) which is MOST common
1.What is Essential?
2. What is Non-Essential?
- 1. Can be synthesized by body
- 2. Must be Ingested into the body
Trace the path food takes from the port of entry to elimination. There are 27 parts
- Oral Cavity - Injestion, Digestion Begins
- Pharynx > Esophagus > Cardiac Sphincter > Stomach > Plyoric Sphincter
- > Small Intestine (Duodenum, Jejum, Ileam) Digestion ends, Absorbtion begins
- Ileosecal Valve / Sphincter >
- Large Intestine (Ascending Colon > Hepatic Flexure > Transverse Colon > Splenic Flexure > Descending Colon > Sigmoid Flexure > Sigmoid Colon)
- Rectum > Anal Canal > Anus (Defication)
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