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Peptidoglycan cell wall
Contains all the pathogentic prokaryotes and most soil and water bacteria.
Domain Eukarya includes what 4 kingdoms?
Protista, Fungi, Plants and Animals
Have flagella sometime during life cycle
Incl. unicellular yeast and multicellular fungi (mushrooms we eat)
Absorbs organic matter through plasma membrane
Cells in multicellular fungi joined to form hyphae
Most fungi lack flagella
Fungi develop from spores or other hyphae fragments
Include multicellular algae
Use photosynthesis for energy
Obtain nutrients and energy by ingesting organic matter through a mouth of some kind.
Methods of classifying and identifying Microorganisms
What scientists do
List of characteristics and means for comparison to aid in
identification - Bergey's Manual
What we do
Figuring out what organism it is for practical purposes of treatments
of infection. Not necessarily done with same means as classification.
One of first steps for ID
Gram stain - 1st
Acid fast stain - TB
The possession of various enzymes as determined by biochemical tests.
Also selective and differential media is used.
Ex: peroxide test - did it bubble or not?
Use antibodies in a variety of ways to either detect presence of
microorganisms or past infections.
DNA fingerprinting, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Can tell relatedness of organisms. Improves classification schemes.
DNA fingerprinting used in epidemiological studies of source of outbreaks.
PCR used to detect small amounts of organisms or organisms not detectable
by conventional culture techniques.
(you can get some false neg. & false pos.)
Occur in grape like clusters
Staphylococcus aureus - named for golden color
Causes many diseases such as food poisoning and toxic
Grow under high osomotic pressure and low moisture. Grows on Mannitol salt agar
and Staph aureus ferments mannitol.
Produce toxins that contribute to pathogenicity-enterotoxin involved