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2010-03-02 01:06:22

Test II
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  1. Domain Bacteria
    • True Bacteria
    • Peptidoglycan cell wall
    • Contains all the pathogentic prokaryotes and most soil and water bacteria.
  2. Domain Eukarya includes what 4 kingdoms?
    Protista, Fungi, Plants and Animals
  3. Protista
    • Unicellular
    • Have flagella sometime during life cycle
    • Include protozoa
  4. Fungi
    • Incl. unicellular yeast and multicellular fungi (mushrooms we eat)
    • Absorbs organic matter through plasma membrane
    • Cells in multicellular fungi joined to form hyphae
    • Most fungi lack flagella
    • Fungi develop from spores or other hyphae fragments
  5. Plantae
    • Include multicellular algae
    • Use photosynthesis for energy
  6. Animalia
    • Include worms
    • Obtain nutrients and energy by ingesting organic matter through a mouth of some kind.
  7. Scientific Nomenclature

    Genus species
  8. Methods of classifying and identifying Microorganisms
    Kings Play Chess On Fine Grain Sand

    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  9. Classification
    What scientists do

    • List of characteristics and means for comparison to aid in
    • identification - Bergey's Manual
  10. Identification
    What we do

    • Figuring out what organism it is for practical purposes of treatments
    • of infection. Not necessarily done with same means as classification.
  11. Differential staining
    One of first steps for ID

    Gram stain - 1st

    Acid fast stain - TB
  12. Biochemical Tests
    The possession of various enzymes as determined by biochemical tests.

    Also selective and differential media is used.

    Ex: peroxide test - did it bubble or not?
  13. Serology
    • Use antibodies in a variety of ways to either detect presence of
    • microorganisms or past infections.
  14. DNA fingerprinting, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
    Can tell relatedness of organisms. Improves classification schemes.

    • DNA fingerprinting used in epidemiological studies of source of outbreaks.
    • PCR used to detect small amounts of organisms or organisms not detectable
    • by conventional culture techniques.
    • (you can get some false neg. & false pos.)
  15. Staphylococcus
    Gram-Positive Cocci

    Occur in grape like clusters

    Staphylococcus aureus - named for golden color

    • Causes many diseases such as food poisoning and toxic
    • shock syndrome.
  16. Staphylococcus Characteristics
    • Grow under high osomotic pressure and low moisture. Grows on Mannitol salt agar
    • and Staph aureus ferments mannitol.

    Produce toxins that contribute to pathogenicity-enterotoxin involved