Fluid and Electrolyte notes

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Fluid and Electrolyte notes
2010-03-02 01:14:04
Basic patient care fluid and electrolyte notes janice

Basic patient care fluid and electrolyte notes
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  1. 3 facts about Body Fluid:
    • Water is the primary body fluid
    • Varies between: Age, sex, adipose tissue
    • Contains solutes: electrolytes and nonelectrolytes.
  2. Extracellular fluids consists of:
    • Interstitial
    • Intravascular
    • Transcellular
  3. Movement of fluids and electrolytes: (name 4)
    • Osmosis
    • diffusion
    • Filtration
    • active transport
  4. Fluid intake is composed of?
    IOM recommendation.
    % from food?
    • drinking fluids.
    • 2700 mL/day
    • 20% from food
    • Fluid intake is regulated by thirst: changes in plasma osmolality and hypothalamus.
  5. Fluid output for urine, skin, lungs, feces.
    • Urine:1500 mL/day
    • Skin and lungs: Perspiration
    • Feces: 100-200 mL/day
  6. Hormonal regulation (name 4)
    • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • Renin-angiotensin system
    • Aldosterone
    • Thyroid hormone; atrial natriuretic factor
  7. Fluid volume deficits include:
    • Hypovolemia
    • Dehydration: dry skin, mucous membranes, nonelastic skin turgor, decreased urine output and blood pressure; rise in temperature
    • weight loss
  8. Fluid volume excess include:
    • Hyerpvolemia
    • Overhydration: elevated blood pressure, bounding pulse, pale, cool skin, edema/ascites, crackles
  9. As a major electrolyte, Sodium..
    • is a extracellular fluid that regulates fluid volume
    • kidney reabsorbs
  10. As a major electrolyte, Potassium:
    • is an intracellular fluid that regulates muscle contraction
    • kidneys eliminate.
  11. Calcium regulation and insufficiencies
    • Bone health, neuromuscular function, cardiac function
    • Insufficiency leads to osteoporosis
  12. Magnesium regulations and what can cause low levels?
    • ICF; bone
    • Alcoholism leads to low levels
  13. Where is chloride found?
    ECF; bound to other ions
  14. What is Phosphate, who is it bound to, and where is it found?
    • ICF anion
    • bound with calcium in teeth and bones; inverse relationship
  15. Bicarbonate regulation, purpose, and location
    • regulated by kidneys
    • Produced by body to act as buffer
    • ICF and ECF
  16. Acid-Base Balance: Define acid and base. What does acid base balance do?
    What is the acceptable range and how is it measured?
    • Acid: compound that contains hydrogen ions
    • Base: compounds that accept hydrogen ions
    • Acid-base balance amounts in solution reflected by pH
    • Acceptable range for serum is 7.35-7.45 pH
    • Measured by arterial blood gases.
  17. Acid-Base regulation has 3 types:
    • Buffer systems
    • respiratory mechanisms
    • renal mechanisms
  18. Acid base imbalance: Define acidosis.
    • Serum pH below 7.35
    • Respiratory cause: retention of CO2
    • Metabolic cause: alteration in bicarbonate.
  19. Alkalosis
    • Serum pH above 7.45
    • Respiratory cause: blowing off CO2
    • Metabolic cause: alteration in bicarbonate.
  20. A nursing assessment of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base imbalance include:
    • Head-to-toe physical assessment
    • vital signs : temp, pulse, respiration, blood pressure
    • daily weight
    • fluid intake/output
    • laboratory studies
  21. Nursing interventions for fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base imbalances include:
    • dietary teaching
    • oral electrolyte supplements
    • limiting or facilitation oral fluid intake
    • parenteral replacement of fluids and/or electrolytes