sociology notes chpt 6.txt

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sociology notes chpt 6.txt
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2010-03-02 01:22:03
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sociology groups organizations Holifield Arkansas
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Chapter 6 notes for Sociology 2013 Spring 2010
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  1. Face-time
    time spent interacting with others on a face-to-face basis
  2. group
    any collection of people
  3. aggregate
    collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time, but share little else in common (shoppers, airline passengers, fans @ sporting event)
  4. category
    a number of people who may have never met one another but share a similar characteristic (age, gender, race)
  5. Primary:
    small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion based interactions over an extended period of time.
  6. Secondary
    larger, more specialized group in which the members engage in more impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time
  7. Ingroup
    people in group feel sense of identity
  8. Outgroup
    ppl who do not belong may feel sense of hostility or competitiveness
  9. reference group
    group that strongly influences a person's behavior & social attitudes, regardless of whether that indiv. Is an actual member
  10. network
    web of social relationships that link one person with other and through and, through them, with others they know
  11. small group
    collectivity small enough for all members to be acquainted with one another and to interact simultaneously
  12. dyad
    group of 2
  13. tryad
    group of 3
  14. coalition
    alliance created in an attempt to reach a shared objective or goal
  15. absolute size
    number of members the group actually has
  16. relative size
    number of potential members
  17. instrumental leadership
    goal- or task-oriented leadership
  18. expressive leadership
    provides emotional support for members
  19. authoritarian leadership style
    makes all major group decisions and assigns tasks to members
  20. democratic leadership style
    leaders encourage group discussion & decision making through consensus building
  21. laissez-faire leadership style
    minimally involved in decision making and who encourages group members to make their own decision
  22. conformity
    process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with norms established by a society, subculture, or both.
  23. Groupthink
    process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise
  24. utilitarianism
    the purpose of all action should be to bring about the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people.
  25. Social exchange theories
    Self-interest basic motivating factor in people's interactions
  26. rational choice theories
    social life can be explained using models of rational individual action
  27. normative organization
    for pursuit of common interest or gaining of personal satisfaction or prestige from being a member (political parties, activist groups, religious groups)
  28. coercive organizations
    non-voluntary organizations (prison, mental hospitals, etc.)
  29. utilitarian organizations
    voluntary, provide material reward (professional groups)
  30. bureaucracy
    organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, clear division of labor, explicit rules & procedures, impersonality in personnel matters.
  31. Rationality
    process by which traditional methods of social organization, characterized by informality & spontaneity, are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules & procedures.
  32. Ideal type
    abstract model that describes recurring characteristics of some phenomenon (communism, bureaucracy)
  33. informal side of bureaucracy
    those aspects of participants' day-to-day activities & interactions that ignore, bypass, or don't correspond with the official rules & procedures of the bureaucracy.
  34. Human relations approach
    views informal networks as a type of adaptive behavior that workers engage in because they experience a lack of congruence between their own needs and the demands of the organization.
  35. Goal displacement
    process that occurs in organizations when the rules become an end in themselves rather than the means to an end � organizational survival becomes more important than achievement of goals
  36. bureaucratic personality
    psychological construct that describes those workers who are more concerned with following correct procedures than they are with getting the job done correctly
  37. iron law of oligarchy
    tendency of bureaucracies to be ruled by a few people (Michels)
  38. humanize bureaucracy
    attempt in 1980's to establish an organizational environment that develops rather than impedes human resources, overshadowed by globalization

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