sociology notes chpt 6.txt
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sociology notes chpt 6.txt
sociology groups organizations Holifield Arkansas
Chapter 6 notes for Sociology 2013 Spring 2010
time spent interacting with others on a face-to-face basis
any collection of people
collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time, but share little else in common (shoppers, airline passengers, fans @ sporting event)
a number of people who may have never met one another but share a similar characteristic (age, gender, race)
small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion based interactions over an extended period of time.
larger, more specialized group in which the members engage in more impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time
people in group feel sense of identity
ppl who do not belong may feel sense of hostility or competitiveness
group that strongly influences a person's behavior & social attitudes, regardless of whether that indiv. Is an actual member
web of social relationships that link one person with other and through and, through them, with others they know
collectivity small enough for all members to be acquainted with one another and to interact simultaneously
group of 2
group of 3
alliance created in an attempt to reach a shared objective or goal
number of members the group actually has
number of potential members
goal- or task-oriented leadership
provides emotional support for members
authoritarian leadership style
makes all major group decisions and assigns tasks to members
democratic leadership style
leaders encourage group discussion & decision making through consensus building
laissez-faire leadership style
minimally involved in decision making and who encourages group members to make their own decision
process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with norms established by a society, subculture, or both.
process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise
the purpose of all action should be to bring about the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people.
Social exchange theories
Self-interest basic motivating factor in people's interactions
rational choice theories
social life can be explained using models of rational individual action
for pursuit of common interest or gaining of personal satisfaction or prestige from being a member (political parties, activist groups, religious groups)
non-voluntary organizations (prison, mental hospitals, etc.)
voluntary, provide material reward (professional groups)
organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, clear division of labor, explicit rules & procedures, impersonality in personnel matters.
process by which traditional methods of social organization, characterized by informality & spontaneity, are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules & procedures.
abstract model that describes recurring characteristics of some phenomenon (communism, bureaucracy)
informal side of bureaucracy
those aspects of participants' day-to-day activities & interactions that ignore, bypass, or don't correspond with the official rules & procedures of the bureaucracy.
Human relations approach
views informal networks as a type of adaptive behavior that workers engage in because they experience a lack of congruence between their own needs and the demands of the organization.
process that occurs in organizations when the rules become an end in themselves rather than the means to an end � organizational survival becomes more important than achievement of goals
psychological construct that describes those workers who are more concerned with following correct procedures than they are with getting the job done correctly
iron law of oligarchy
tendency of bureaucracies to be ruled by a few people (Michels)
attempt in 1980's to establish an organizational environment that develops rather than impedes human resources, overshadowed by globalization