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  1. What is heart failure?
    When the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body
  2. During heart failure, the heart can only pump enough blood with an elvated ____________.
    Left Ventericular End Diastolic Pressure (LVEDP)
  3. During heart failure, what is retained due to an increased release of Aldosterone from the Adreanal cortex?
    NaCl and H2O
  4. In heart failure, stimulation of the renin Angiotensin system will result in a decrease of _______ combined with _________ overload.
    • Cardiac Output
    • Fluid Volume
  5. What causes pulmonary edema?
    Decrease in Left Atrium Pressure (PCWP)
  6. What is the most dramatic symptom of left heart failure?
    Pulmonary Edema
  7. What PCWP is seen with cardiogenic pulmonary edema?
    PWCP >25-30 mmHg
  8. Slow systolic uptake in wave form and late AO systolic peak are characteristics of ________?
    AO Stenosis
  9. How is stenosis of the AO Valve with subsequent fibrosis and calicifaction classified?
    Valvular, Subvalvular, and supravalvular
  10. What are the two maneuvers used to identify AO Stenosis?
    • Brocken Brough Manuever
    • Valsalva Maneuver
  11. What is the most common cause of valvular disease (ie AO insufficiency (regurgitation))?
    Rheumatic Valve Disease
  12. What is the most common cause for Mitral Stenosis and Mitral Regurge?
    Rheumatic Fever
  13. What is the EF range for normal ventricular contraction?
  14. What is the EF Value for a Hyperdynamic Ventricle?
    EF > 70%
  15. What is the EF value for Depressed Contractility?
    EF < 40%
  16. What is the EF value for Severe Depression of LV systolic funcion?
    EF < 20%
  17. What term defines the abnormal communication between left and right heart chambers?
  18. What type of shunt shows unexplained Arterial O2 desaturation?
    Right to Left shunt
  19. What type of shunt shows Pulmonary Artery O2 saturation > 80%?
    Left to Right Shunt
  20. What is the amount for the injection bolus for a TD Swans?
    10 mL aka 10cc (you are welcome, James)
  21. What are symptoms of AO regurge?
    • Increase in pusle pressure
    • LVEDP increases w/rapid ventricular filling (Preload)
  22. What is signifigant about PCWP being 3-5 times greater than LA Mean Pressure?
    Mitral Regurge
  23. What is occuring when there is a decerase in systolic pressure on the monitor?
  24. What is occuring when theres is a decrease in diastolic pressure on the monitor?
  25. What is a typical characteristic of Aortic Stenosis?
    Systolic pressure gradient btwn LV and AO
  26. What are problems due to Mitral Valve Stenosis?
    • Increase in Left Atrial Pressure
    • Left Atrium Hyphertrophy
    • Dilation of Left Atrium which leads to Afib
  27. List the pressures of all the chambers:
    • Right Atrium : 0-8
    • Right Ventricle : 15-25
    • Pulmonary Artery:
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