chapter 1 terms

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halvob
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chapter 1 terms
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2011-05-26 13:49:25
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politics
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Chapter 1 terms
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  1. founders
    those who were involved in establishing the U.S., whether at the time of the Decl of Indep. or the writing of the Constitution
  2. Social contract
    theory that gov has only the authority accorded it by the consent of the governed.
  3. democracy
    system of gov. in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them either directly or indirectly through elected representatives
  4. self-government
    goal of democracy, whereby average people have control of the institutions of gov.
  5. majority rule
    idea that a numerical majority of a group should hold the power to make decisions binding on the whole group; a simple majority
  6. mob rule
    government by a mod or mass of people with no formal authority whatsoever
  7. liberty
    political value that cherishes freedom from an arbitrary exercise of power that constricts individual choice
  8. order
    political value in which the rule of law is followed and does not permit actions that infringe on the well-being of others
  9. rule of law
    legal system with known rules that are enforced equally against all people
  10. minority rights
    idea that the majority should not be able to take certain fundamental rights away from those in the minority
  11. constitutional system
    system of gov in which people set up an agree on the basic rules and procedures that will govern them
  12. framers
    those who were involved in writing the constitution
  13. natural rights
    natural rights that government cannot take away
  14. direct democracy
    form of democracy in which political power is exercised directly by citizens
  15. representative democracy
    form of democracy in which citizens elect public officials to make political decisions and formulate laws on their behalf
  16. republic
    form of gov. in which power derives from citizens, but public officials make policy and govern according to existing law
  17. faction
    defined by madison as any group that places its own interests above the aggregate interests of society
  18. self-interest
    concern for one's own advantage and well-being
  19. civic interest
    concern for the well-being of society and the nation as a whole
  20. legislative branch
    makes the laws
  21. executive branch
    enforces the laws
  22. judicial branch
    interprets the laws
  23. separation of powers
    gov structure in which authority is divided among branches with each holding separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility
  24. checks and balances
    gov structure that authorizes each branch to share powers with the other branches, holding some control over the other branches
  25. federalism
    system of government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between nation and state governments
  26. Jeffersonian and Hamiltonian views
    two political schools of thought or perspectives on what constituted good government
  27. political parties
    broad coalitions of interests organized to win elections in order to enact a commonly supported set of public policies
  28. politics
    process by which people make decisions about who gets what, when and how
  29. political ideology
    set of consistent political beliefs
  30. liberals
    individuals who have faith in gov. to improve people's lives, believing that private efforts are insufficient. in the social sphere, liberals usually support diverse lifestyles and tend to oppose and gov. action that seeks to shape personal choices
  31. conservatives
    individuals who distrust gover, believing that private efforts are more like to improve people's lives. in the social sphere, they usually support traditional lifestyles and tend to believe gov can play a valuable role in shaping personal choices
  32. moderates
    individuals who are in the middle of the ideological spectrum and do not hold consistently strong views about whether gov should be involved in people's lives
  33. libertarians
    those who generally believe that gov should refrain from acting to regulate either the economy or moral values
  34. populists
    those who oppose concentrated wealth and adhere to traditional moral values
  35. political culture
    set of beliefs common to a group of people
  36. individualism
    set of beliefs holding that people, and not government are responsible for their own well-being
  37. capitalism
    economic system in which businesses and key industries are privately owned and in which individuals acting on their own or with others, are free to create businesses
  38. socialism
    economic system in which the gov owns major industries
  39. egalitarianism
    belief in human equality that disdains inherited titles of nobility and even inherited wealth
  40. public policy
    intentional actions of gov designed to achieve some goal
  41. problem identification
    first stage in the policy-making process in which a problem in politics, the economy, or society is recognized as warranting gov. action
  42. policy agenda
    stage in the policy-making process in which a problem gets the attention of policy makers
  43. interest groups
    group of citizens who share a common interest- a plitical opinion, religious or ideological belief, social goal, or economic characteristic-and try to influence public polocy to benefit themselves
  44. stakeholders
    participants in the policy-making system who each seek to influence the content and direction of legislation
  45. policy formulation
    stage of the policy-making process in which those with a stake in the policy area propose and develop solutions to the problem that has been identifies
  46. policy enactment
    stage in the policy-making process in which congress passes a law that authorizes a specific governmental response to a problem
  47. policy implementation
    stage in the policy-making process in which the executive branch develops the rules that will put a policy into action
  48. policy evaluation
    stage in the policy-making process in which a policy is evaluated for its effectiveness and efficiency; if changes are needed, the issue is placed back on the policy agenda
  49. power elite
    small handful of decision makers who hold authority over a large set of issues
  50. pluralism
    system of policy making in which competing interests hold authority over issues most important to them
  51. majoritarian
    system of policy making in which those with numerical majority hold authority
  52. responsiveness
    idea that gov. should implement laws and policies that reflect the wishes of the public and any changes in those wishes
  53. equality
    idea that all individuals are equal in their moral worth and so must be equal in treatment under the law and have equal access to the decision-making process
  54. autocracy
    system of gov in which the power to govern is concentrated in the hands of one individual ruler
  55. oligarchy
    system of gov in which the power to govern is concentrated in the hands of a powerful few, usually wealthy individuals
  56. monarchy
    system of gov that assigns power to a single person who inherits that position and rules until death
  57. public goods
    goods or benefits provided by gov from which everyone benefits and from which no one can be excluded
  58. private goods
    goods or benefits provided by gov; most of the benefit falls to the individuals or families receiving them
  59. trustee
    idea of representation that says elected officials should do what they think best, even if the public disagrees, and elections allow the public to render a judgment on their decisions
  60. delegate
    idea of representation that says elected officials should do what the public wants and not exercise independent judgment
  61. political equality
    idea that holds people should have equal amounts of influence in the political system
  62. equality of opportunity
    expectation that citizens may not be discriminated against on account of race, gender, or national background, and that every citizen should have an equal chance to succeed in life
  63. equality of outcome
    expectation that equality is achieved if results are comparable for all citizens regardless of race, gender, or national background, or that such groups are proportionally represented in measures of success in life
  64. civil society
    voluntary organizations that allow communities to flourish

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