chapter 2 terms

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halvob
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87890
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chapter 2 terms
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2011-05-26 14:08:37
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ch 2
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  1. constitution
    document or set of documents that sets forth the basic rules and procedures for how a society shall be governed
  2. boston tea party (1774)
    protest in which colonists dressed as indians boarded vessels in boston harbor and threw chests of tea overboard to express anger at britain's tax policies and commercial regulations
  3. continental congress
    initial governing authority over the revolutionary war and other common affairs of the 13th independent states
  4. decl. of independence
    document declaring american independence from great britain and calling for equality, human rights, and public participation
  5. articlees of confederation
    initial governing authority of the u.s.
  6. shay's rebellion
    revolt by massachusetts farmers against heavy debts; helped convince states that neither the state nor federal gov. were functioning properly
  7. constitutional convention
    meeting by twelve states to revise the articles of confederation; ended up proposing an entirely new constitution
  8. virginia plan
    madison's proposal at the constitutional convention to radically strengthen the national gov.
  9. proportional representation
    system of legislative districting in which larger states receive more representatives than smaller states
  10. new jersey plan
    counterproposal to the virginia plan, aimed to strengthen the articles of confederation but leave the basic working of the articles intact.
  11. connecticut compromise
    compramise or legislative representation whereby the lower chamber is based on population and the upper chamber provides equal representation fo the states
  12. enumerated powers
    powers of congress listed in article 1, section 8 of the constitution, such as regulation commerce and coining money
  13. three-fifths compromise
    compromise over slavery at the constitutional convention that granted states extra representation in the house of representatives based on their number of slaves at the ration of 3/5ths
  14. electoral college
    the presidential electors, selected to represent the votes of their respective states, who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for president and vp
  15. bill of rights
    first 10 amendments to the constitution, which provide basic political rights
  16. bicameral
    two-chamber legislature, as the house and the senate
  17. veto
    authority of the president to block legislation passed by congress. congress can override vetoes by 2/3 majority in each chamber
  18. override
    congress's power to overturn a presidential veto with a 2/3 vote in each chamber
  19. impeach
    authority of the house of reps to bring harges against teh president and other federal officials
  20. judicial review
    authority of courts to declare laws passed by congress and acts of the executive branch to be unconstitutional
  21. amendment
    formal process of changing the constitution
  22. federalist 51
    written by james madison, discusses the needs for checks and balances in gov.
  23. federalism
    system of gov in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between national and state govs
  24. separation of powers
    gov. structure in which authority is divided among branches, with each holding separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility
  25. checks and balances
    gov. structure that authorizes each branch of gov. to share powers with the other branches, thereby holding some scrutiny of and control over the other branches
  26. writ of habeas corpus
    right of individuals who have been arrested and jailed to go before a judge who determines if their imprisonment is legal
  27. federalists
    initially, those who supported the constitution during the ratification period; later, the name of the political party established by supporters of alexander hamilton
  28. antifederalists
    those who opposed the newly proposed constitution during the ratification period
  29. federalist papers
    series of essays written by james madison, alexander hamilton, and john jay arguing for the ratification of the constitution; today a leading source for understanding the constitution
  30. general welfare clause (article 1, sectin 8)
    gives congress the power to tax to provide for the general welfare
  31. necessary and proper clause (article 1, section 8)
    gives congress the power to pass all laws necessary to proper to the powers enumerated in section 8.
  32. implied powers
    powers not explicitly granted to congress but added through the necessary and proper clause

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