chapter 3 terms

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  1. nation
    political unit whose people share a sense of common identity
  2. confederal system
    system of gov in which ultimate authority rests with the regional govs.
  3. unitary system
    system of gov. in which ultimate authority rests with the national gov.
  4. federalism
    system of gov. in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between national and state govs
  5. self-gov
    rule by the people
  6. enumerated powers
    powers expressly granted to congress by the constitution
  7. necessary and proper clause (article 1, section 8)
    gives congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper to the powers enumerated in section 8
  8. reserve powers
    powers retained by the states under the constitution
  9. police powers
    authority of the states to protect the health, safety, and welfare of their citizens
  10. concurrent powers
    powers held by both the national and state gov in a federal system
  11. gurantee clause (article IV, section 4)
    provides a federal gov guarantee that the states will have a republican form of gov.
  12. due process clause
    prevents the federal gov and the state gov from denying any person due process of law
  13. equal protection clause (14th amendment
    prevents the states from denying any person the equal protection of the law
  14. supremacy clause (articl VI)
    makes federal law supreme over state laws
  15. preemption
    doctrine by which extensive federal regulation can prevent regulation by the states
  16. implied powers
    powers not expressly granted to congress but added through the necessary and proper clause
  17. sovereign immunity
    doctrine holding that states cannot be sued w/out their permission
  18. commerce clause (articl I, section 8)
    gives congress the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations, with indian tribes, and among the various states
  19. full faith and credit clause (article IV, section 1)
    requires states to accept civil proceedings from other states
  20. privileges and immunities clause (Article IV, section 2)
    Requires states to treat nonresidents equally to residents
  21. nation-centered federalism
    view that the constitution adn the federal government derive from the people, not the states
  22. state-centered federalism
    the states created the constitution and the fed. gov.
  23. states' rights
    states have strong independent authority to resist federal rules under the constitution
  24. nullification
    right of states to invalidate acts of congress they believe to be illegal
  25. McCulloch v. Maryland
    supreme court decision upholding the right of congress to create a bank
  26. broad construction
    interpretation of the constitution that goes beyond the plain meaning fo the specific words used
  27. Gibbons v. Ogden
    Supreme court decision giving broad latitude to congress under the commerce clause
  28. Dred Scott v. Sandford
    Supreme Court decision prohibiting Congress from regulating slavery in the territories
  29. civil rights cases
    limited congressional authority to prohibit private discrimination under the 14th amendment
  30. dual federalism
    doctrine holding that states and federal governments have almost completely separate functions
  31. civil rights act
    prohibits discrimination in employment, education, and places of public accommodation
  32. voting rights act
    gives the federal gov the right to prevent discrimination in voting rights
  33. new federalism
    shifting of power back to the states beginning with the Nixon administration
  34. categorical grants
    Money from Congress to the states that has to be spent in specific categories
  35. general revenue sharing
    money from congress to the states that could be spent however the states wanted
  36. block grants
    money from congress to the states that had to be spent in broad, rather than specific categories
  37. contract with America
    campaign proposal containing ten legislative initiatives used by republicans running for the house of reps in 1994
  38. devolution
    shifting of power from the national gov. to the states
  39. mandates
    congressional requirements on the states to undertake particular activities; states object particularly to unfunded mandates
  40. line-item veto
    power given to some governors to veto parts of appropriations bills
  41. omnibus bill
    one very large bill that encompasses many separate bills, to help ensure passage
  42. missouri plan
    process for selecting state judges whereby the original nomination is by appointment and subsequent retention is by a retention election.
  43. retention election
    election in which voters determine whether a state judge, originally appointed under a merit plan, should be retained in the state court system
  44. city-manager system
    local gov. system in which the legislative branch hires a manager to run the executive branch.
  45. recall
    citizens can remove state officials prior to the end of their elected term of office
  46. initiative
    citizens place a proposed law on the ballot for public approval
  47. referendum
    process by which public approval is required before states can pass certain laws
  48. affirmative action
    policies that grant racial or gender preferences in hiring, education, or contracting
  49. direct democracy
    form of democracy in which political power is exercised directly by citizens
  50. intergovernmental lobby
    set of lobbies that represent the interests of state and local governments
  51. policy diffusion
    policy ideas and programs initiated by one state spread to other states
  52. race to the bottom
    situation in which states compete with one another to lower protections and services below the level they might otherwise prefer.
  53. conformity costs
    cost of democracy borne by those ppl in the minority, who on one or more issues live under the rules set by the majority
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chapter 3 terms
2011-06-03 04:55:42

ch 3
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