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What is measurement?
the collection of information on which a decision is based (heart rates, body fat, knowledge, etc)
What is a test?
Its a tool used to take a measurement (heart rate monitor, calipers, exam)
What is a battery?
it is a collection of related tests administered within a specific time frame to obtain information about a multidimensional attribute.
What is an inventory?
it is an assestment instrument used to obtain information about an affective attribute of an examinee; responses are typically not judged as correct or incorrect.
What is an assestment?
the process of subjectively quantifying or qualitatively describing an attribute of interest;
Interes, attitude, value related.
What is an evaluation?
the use of measuremen and or/ assessment in making decisionsl the decision is based on interpretation and/or judgement of measurements taken.
What is reliable?
Is it consistent? (test measurements and is administered the same way every time)
What is valid?
Truthful (tests measure what we profess to be measuring)
What is objective?
- Standarized/Defined scoring system & test is administered by a trained tester. (Rater Reliability)
- It includes measures such as tape measure, scales, stop watches.
What is Summative?
Testing is done at the conclusion of instruction or program. Summative evaluation is used to determine whether or not the broad objectives have been achieved.
What is formative?
- Feedback given throughout the entire time or instructiom; begins early in the process and continues throughout the process.
- Ex. Tennis serve
What is a criterion?
- It is defined as a satisfactory level of performance.
- Performance is compared to the standard only not to the performance of other individuals.
- Criterion-referenced standards result in a pass-fail situation.
- 97% on the test.
What are norm-referenced standards?
- It is used to judge an individual's performance in relation to the performances of others in a well-defined group.
- Set standards for comparison when the situation requires more selectivity (more than pass-fail dertermination), such as grades - A,B,C; poor,fair, good, excellent.
- Limits of norm-referenced standards
- Marines vs. 6th graders
What is a self-referenced standards
It is about yourself. Comparing results from previous tests.
What is a laboratory test?
Tests that requires specialized equipment and specialized training of examiners and evaluators.
What is a field assestment?
Test that requires no expensive equipment of extremely trained evaluators.
What is a formal assessments?
it is characterized by careful preparation, precise timing and scoring, and standardization.
What is an informal assessments?
Often designed logically and are seldom testing during development.
What is statistics?
It is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data.
Type of scores - Continuous
Potentially infinite. Real numbers - 12.3434234
Type of scores - Discrete
- Integer numbers (whole numbers) - 1,4,6
- Ex. to measure sit ups, basketball score
Scales of measurement - Nominal Scores
- Meaningless. Usually used for identification purposes.
- Ex. Social security number, driver's license, sex). This is the naming level.
Scales of measurement - Ordinal Scores
- Ordered; identify rankingl ranked scores.
- Ex, 1st, 2nd, 3rd place.
- 1st place - 10.3 seconds, 2nd place - 14.3
- This is the ranking level.
Scales of measurement - Interval scores
- Gives the ranking and the size of the space between the rankings, that is there is no absolute zero point.
- Ex. 0 degrees celcius does not mean there is no temperature, it just means it's very cold.
- Ex. if a person scores 0 on an exam, it does not mean the person has no knowledge at all but rather the person failed to answer any of the questions correctly.
Scales of measurement - Ratio scores
- Common unit of measurement between each score and there is a true zero point. With zero indicating nothing is there
- Ex. 0 distance, 0 height, 0 seconds.
What is Descriptive Statistics?
it summarizes data. Usually I present the average score.
What is an inferential statistics?
They are tools that tell us how much confidence we can have when we generalize from a sample to a population.
What is a population?
- It is any group in which an investigator is interested.
- ex. American males.
What is a census?
A study in which all members of the population are included.
What is a frequency?
it is a number of individuals or cases.
What is a frequency distribution?
it shows how many individuals had each score.
Grouped frequency distribution
is a group of scores and the number of people falling into that group.
What is a cumulative frequency?
How many individuals are in and below a given score.
What is a frequency%
- it converts the frequency its relative percentage.
- Frequency/N x 100
What is a percentile ranking?
It indicates the percentage of scores below a given score.
What is a percentile?
It refers to the point in a distribution of scores below which a given percentage of scores fall.
What is a mode?
Most frequently reoccuring number.
Midpoint of a distribution.
Ranking Formula: N plus 1 Divided by 2
Highest number - Lowest number
- High = 96
- Low = 48
Median always goes with range.
Statistical dispersion from the mean.
Standard Deviation is always relative to the mean.