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  1. ELD standards support the ELA standards through ... (Skill 11.1)
    learning experiences that are understandable and meaningful from the beginning of an ELL's schooling in CA. ELLs engaged through singing, drama, and reading aloud, teachers model and teach language patterns.
  2. Differentiated instruction is (Skill 11.2)
    instruction geared to the different English and knowledge levels of students in the classroom.
  3. Suggestion, teachers need to create lesson plans... (Skill 11.2)
    that reflect the ELD standards for each proficiency level of ELL students.
  4. Formative assessment occurs ... (Skill 11.3)
    during the learning process while both the teacher and the student have the opportunity to modify outcomes.
  5. Summative assessment occurs ... (Skill 11.3)
    usually takes place at the end of a specific task or at the end of the course.
  6. To implement "Backwards" lesson planning (Wiggins and McTighe, 1998), teachers should ... (Skill 11.3)
    • - identify the expected outcomes
    • - determine what is an acceptable competency in the outcome and results
    • - plan instructional strategies and learning experiences to achieve the competencies.
  7. Curriculum calibration involves... (Skill 11.3)
    an examination of content standards across grade levels.
  8. Curriculum mapping is ... (Skill 11.3)
    an outline of the unit or course in a schematic form that helps teachers plan their instructional goals.
  9. Differentiated instruction suggestion .. (Skill 11.4)
    group students for a project, possible to pair nonnative speakers (who have content knowledge but lack the English language skills to express themselves) with native speakers (who don't have content knowledge but can read and write in English).
  10. The California English Language Development Test (CELDT) results for newly enrolled students are used ... (Skill 12.1)
    to identify the English level of students as English learners or as Initial Fluent English Proficient (IFEP).
  11. The CELDT results must ... (Skill 12.1)
    be used as one of four criteria when considering reclassification of ELLs (teacher evaluation, parent opinion, student's performance in basic skills)
  12. Examples of language proficiency tests include (Skill 12.2)
    • - ACT Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI)
    • - Test of Spoke English (TSE)
    • - Test of English as a Foreign Langauge (TOEFL)
    • - Foreign Service Officer Test (FSOT) Oral assessment (OA)
    • - IDEA Proficiency Test (IPT)
    • - Language Assessment Scales (LAS)
  13. Examples (Skill 12.2)
    Examples of language achievement tests include unit exams and final exams
  14. Diagnostic language tests are designed ... (Skill 12.2)
    to identify individual students' strengths and weaknesses in languages (speech therapists or psychologists)
  15. Validity ... (Skill 12.3)
    an assessment can only be considered "valid" if it measures what it claims to measure.
  16. Diaz-Rico and Week 1995, "empirical validity is"... (Skill 12.3)
    • a measure of how effectively a test relates to some other known measure.
    • 1. Predictive empirical validity si concerned with the possible outcomes of test performance.
    • 2. Concurrent empirical validity is connected with another variable for mearurement.
  17. Test Bias (Avalos in Schumm, 2006), four types (Skill 12.3)
    • 1. cultural bias - concerns acquired knowledge from participating in and sharing certain cultural values and experiences
    • 2. attitudinal bias - refers to the negative attitude of the examiner toward a certain language, dialect, etc
    • 3. test bias or normal bias - refers to excluding ELLs or different populations from the school's population used to obtain the norm results
    • 4. translation bias - occurs when the test is literally translated from L2 to L1 by interpreters or other means
  18. Reliability ... (Skill 12.3)
    a test can only be considered "reliable" if similar scores result when the test is taken a second time
  19. Practicality ... (Skill 12.3)
    a test that proves to be both valid and reliable may unfortunately prove to be cost- or time-prohibitive
  20. Teacher bias ... (Skill 12.4)
    may occur when teachers are not fully trained in the application of tests, fully trained test administrators is one way to eliminate this problem
  21. Cultural bias ... (Skill 12.4)
    occurs when test questions have contexts that are unfamiliar to the students
  22. Linguistic bias ... (Skill 12.4)
    occurs if English is the only option offered to Limited-English-Proficient (LEP) students
  23. Hughes 1989 makes a number of distinctions between test types ... (Skill 12.5)
    proficiency, achievement, diagnostic, placement, direct vs. indirect, discrete point vs. integrative, norm-referenced vs. criterion-referenced, objective vs. subjective, communicative language.
  24. Proficiency tests, Hughes 1989 (Skill 12.5)
    are designed to measure a students' proficiency in the target language irrespective of any prior training in that language
  25. Achievement tests, Hughes 1989 (Skill 12.5)
    are directly related to language courses and establish how successful the students or the course itself is in achieving the objectives
  26. Diagnostic tests, Hughes 1989 (Skill 12.5)
    used to identify students' strengths and weaknesses.
  27. Placement tests, Hughes 1989 (Skill 12.5)
    are typically used to determine the class level in which the student should be placed according to his/her abilities
  28. Direct vs. indirect testing, Hughes 1989 (Skill 12.5)
    • -direct, requires the candidate to perform precisely the skill to be measured
    • -indirect, tries to determine the abilities that underlie the skills that are important for the testing purpose
  29. Discrete-point vs. integrative testing, Hughes 1989 (Skill 12.5)
    • -discrete-point, refers to teh testing of one element at a time, item by item
    • -integrative, makes use of a combination of language elements for a candidate to complete a task
  30. Norm-referenced vs. criterion-referenced testing, Hughes 1989 (Skill 12.5)
    • -norm-referenced, relates one candidate's performance to that of other condidates
    • -criterion-referenced, classifies people according to whether or not they are able to perform a task or set of tasks successfully
  31. Objective testing vs. subjective testing, Hughes 1989 (Skill 12.5)
    • difference is in the scoring,
    • objective - no judgement by the scorer
    • subjective - judged by scorer
  32. Communicative language testing, Hughes 1989 (Skill 12.5)
    measuring students' ability to take part in acts of communication and the best way to do this
  33. District benchmarks ... (Skill 12.6)
    students' performance can be compared to others in the school and district through district benchmarks
  34. Textbook assessments .. (Skill 12.6)
    textbook should reflect the state standards for each grade level and assessments should monitor progress of content
  35. Differentiated levels of discussion questions to check for understanding ... (Skill 12.6)
    teacher uses differentiated levels of discussion questions to evaluate the comprehension and mastery of content
  36. Examples of alternative assessments ... (Skill 13.1)
    • - portfolios
    • - conferencing
    • - oral interviews
    • - teacher observation
    • - documentation
    • - interviews
    • - self-assessment
    • - student journals
    • - story or text retelling
    • - experiments and/or demonstrations
  37. Portfolios ... (Skill 13.1)
    are a collection of a student's work over a period of time
  38. Conferencing (Skill 13.1)
    allows the instructor to evaluate a student's progress or decline
  39. Oral interviews (Skill 13.1)
    used to evaluate the language the students are using or their ability to respond when asked questions
  40. Teacher observation ... (Skill 13.1)
    instructor observes stuent behavior during an activity
  41. Documentation ... (Skill 13.1)
    similar to teacher observation
  42. Interviews ... (Skill 13.1)
    instructors to evaluate the student's level of English proficiency as well as identify potential problem areas that may require correctional strategies.
  43. Self-assessment ... (Skill 13.1)
    the process of self-analysis they begin to "think" for themselves
  44. Student journals ... (Skill 13.1)
    useful for keeping records as well as promoting an inner dialog
  45. Story or text retelling ... (Skill 13.1)
    students respond orally and can be assessed on how well they describe events in the story or text as well as their reponse to the story
  46. Experiments and/or demonstrations ... (Skill 13.1)
    students complete an experiment or demonstration and present it through an oral or written report
  47. Gifted students are identified as gifted in three different ways... (Skill 13.2)
    • - demonstated high ability - referred by parents/teachers to a screening committee
    • - high achievement - based on high achievement on standardized tests
    • - high IQ - students with a full-scale IQ of 132 or above
  48. Other special programs ... (Skill 13.2)
    SST, Special Education, Intervention programs
  49. Teachers can use the results of student assessment ... (Skill 13.3)
    to modify and differentiate instrution with all students
  50. Re-teaching a skill can often be achieved ... (Skill 13.3)
    by incorporating it into the next task being taught without any undue emphasis
  51. Failure to reach a standard ... (Skill 13.3)
    may be one of a series of standards a student has failed to meet and consideration should be given to initiating the process of intervention on the student's behalf
  52. Differentiated instruction ... (Skill 13.4)
    helps teachers cope with diverse learning and learners in the classroom
  53. Scaffolding techniques ... (Skill 13.4)
    help the ELL by helping the learner focus on the key parts of an assignment
  54. Civil Rights Act of 1964 ... (Skill 14.1)
    established that schools, as recipients of federal funds, cannot discriminate against ELLs
  55. Lau vs. Nichols, (Skill 14.1)
    the Supreme Court ruled that no student shall be denied "equal access" to any academic program, due to "limited English proficiency."
  56. Castaneda vs. Pickard, 1981, (Skill 14.1)
    • 5th Circuit Court of Appeals, 3 criteria for programs for LEP
    • 1. based on "sound educational theory."
    • 2. must be "implemented effectively" (resources/personnel)
    • 3. it must be evaluated as effective in overcoming language handicaps
  57. 1983, Nation at Risk Report, by National Commission on Excellence in Education ... (Skill 14.1)
    concluded that the US educational system was failing to meet the antional need for a competitive workforce, while the findings are voluntary, schools that receive Title I must participate
  58. Proposition 227, 1998 ... (Skill 14.1)
    • mandating sheltered English immersion for a temporary transitional period not to normally exceed one year
    • 1. curriculum designed specifically for ELLs
    • 2. teachers who are trained in second-language acquisition methods
    • 3. instructional strategies designed for language learning
  59. Williams v. State of California, 2004 ... (Skill 14.1)
    the CDE has proposed changes to the School Accountability Report Card (SARC) template that all schools must update and publish annually.
  60. No Child Left Behind, 2001 ... (Skill 14.1) ...
    established requirements that school districts must meet to continue to receive federal funds
  61. Criticisms of NCLB ... (Skill 14.1)
    • -schools, districts, and states manipulate the test results (NEA, 2008 AYP results)
    • -standardized tests are problematic andencourage teachers to teach to the test (Menken, 2006)
    • -no provisions are made for gifted, talented, or high achieving students (Cloud, 2007)
    • -high schools left out of funding, measurements, and improvement strategies
    • -increases segregation in public schools
    • -inadequate funding
  62. Title VII defines an LP as one who ... (Skill 14.2)
    • 1. was not born in the US or whose native language is other than English
    • 2. has sufficient difficulty speaking, reaading, writing, or understanding the English language
  63. NCLB, 2000 has several core provisions ... (Skill 14.2)
    • 1. ALL students must be proficient in reading and math by 2014
    • 2. states must assess students in math and reading once a year in grades 3-8 and once in HS
    • 3. every public school must be evaluated to see if it has made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
    • 4. Title I schools "needing improvement" must develop a school improvement plan
  64. Williams vs. California, 2004 with two precedents ... (Skill 14.2)
    • 1. the state is required to provide trained teachers, adequate materials, and safe facilities for all students
    • 2. All students have the right to an equal education
  65. Proposition 227 ... (Skill 14.2)
    instruction was to be "overwhelmingly in English" and students were to have immersion classes with sheltered, or structured, English instruction for a maximum of one year
  66. California Department of Eduction, commissioned the American Institute for Research to coduct a study of the results of Proposition 227 ... (Skill 14.2)
    • 1. Performance gap between EL and others constant
    • 2. ELL reclassifying after 10 years is less than 40%
    • 3. Methods recommended in Proposition 227 have shown no significant impact
  67. English Only Programs ... (Skill 14.3)
    • 1. For supporters, reaffirming the preeminence of English means reaffirming a unifying force in American life.
    • 2. For opponents, Official English or English Only are attempts to coerce conformity by terminating services in other languages
  68. Two-Way Immersion Programs (Howard and Sugarman, 2007) ... (Skill 14.3)
    focus on developing proficiency in two languages while also developing the a cademic skills of all students in the program
  69. Two-way immersion programs ... (Skill 14.3)
    are largely elementary-level public schools, charter schools, amgnet schools, or private schools. A coalitioin of parents can request a two-way immersion program from their school district (Cloud, Genesee, and Hamayan, 2000).
  70. Students who enter the classroom without a full command of the language of instruction ... (Skill 14.4)
    are at an affective disadvantage.
  71. Teachers are required under 2001 No Child Left Behind Act, to be "highly qualified", (Skill 14.5)
    • 1. at least a BA
    • 2. a state license or credential
    • 3. demonstrated subject matter competency
  72. Dual language and heritage language programs ... (Skill 14.7)
    are based on research idicating that students learn more efficiently when literacy skills nad content are taught in the language with which they are most familiar.
  73. Newcomer center ... (Skill 14.7)
    are transitional programs that provide middle-grade elementary students with the opportunity to have core subjects - math, science, and social studies - taught in the primaryh language for a maximum of one year, with an ESL class as part of the instructional day
  74. Structured English Immersion (SEI) ... (Skill 14.7)
    classes endeavor to teach content in a way that carefully builds vocabulary and sentence structures to facilitate understanding
  75. English Learner mainstream classes with additional support ... (Skill 14.7)
    has been the most common of the program options in California, particularly in areas where there are few speakers of the heritage language. Additional and appropriate support has been variously interpreted to mean peer support, such as classroom buddies, instructional aides, and pullout tutorials
  76. The goal of ELD instruction ... (Skill 14.8)
    is to provide access to the core curriculum for learners at all stages of English-language ability
  77. Specifically Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) instruction ... (Skill 14.8)
    is a method of turning conent instruction into materical that is comprehensible English learners.
  78. Content-based ELD ... (Skill 14.8)
    requires at least an hour of direct English instruction during each school day, and content delivered in English during the balance of the day.
  79. AB 748, ... (Skill 14.9)
    • mandated use of the CELDT as teh primary tool for determining program components for individual English Learners. Five levels:
    • 1. Beginning
    • 2. Early intermediate
    • 3. Intermediate
    • 4. Early advanced
    • 5. Advanced
  80. The goal of ELD ... (Skill 14.10)
    is to provide access to the core curriculum for learners at all stages of English Language ability
  81. The goal of SDAIE ... (Skill 14.10)
    instruction is also to provide all students with access to the core curriculum by turning content instruction into material that is comprehensible to English learners, while keeping them in a classroom where instruction is "overwhelmingly" in English
  82. Together, SDAIE and ELD ... (Skill 14.10)
    provide a scaffold for a student to improve English comprehension daily without loss of thecore curriculum
  83. Williams vs.State of California, 2000 ... (Skill 14.11)
    • low performing schools (in deciles 1-3) must provide
    • - adequate textbooks
    • - safe facilities
    • - adequately trained teachers
  84. Valenzuela Settlement (AB347) ... (Skill 14.11)
    requires that schools that receive funding for intensive instruction must post a notice in classrooms used for grades 10-12 making parents and guardians aware of the procedures for alleging lack of opportunity if their student has not passed the exit exam by the end of twelfth grade
  85. Research has proven that BICS ... (Skill 15.1)
    can be developed in a relatively short period of time but that CALP takes five years or more (Cummins, 1979)
  86. Primary-language literacy level ... (Skill 15.2)
    ELLs who have achieved primary-language literacy have mastered the skills of directionality of print, correspondence of sound-letter, concept of stories related through print, and other emerging literacy skills
  87. Transfer of primary-language literacy (Skill 15.2)
    ELLs who have achieved literacy skills in their primarry language are able to transfer many of these skill to ELL
  88. ELLs use their prior knowledge, education, and background experiences (Skill 15.2)
    to understand concepts being explained to them in the language being learned
  89. ELLs arrive in the US school system ... (Skill 15.2)
    with differing levels of academic content knowledge as well as varying English language skills
  90. The vocabulary knowledge ... (Skill 15.2)
    of ELLs can vary considerably, from students who have limited vocabulary
  91. Gardner and Lambert (1972) ... (Skill 15.2)
    two types of motivation (instrumental and inntegrative)
  92. Instrumental motivation (Skill 15.2)
    acquiring a second language for a specific reason such as a job
  93. Integrative motivation (Skill 15.2)
    acquiring a second language to fulfill a wish to communicate in a different culture.
  94. Suggestion ... (Skill 15.3)
    When teachers are able to activate a learner's prior knowledge, the learner is able to learn fast.
  95. Unrau, 2008, describes some methods for activating prior knowledge ... (Skill 15.3)
    • - double-entry journals
    • - anticipation guides
    • - directed teading-thinking activity
    • - know/want-to-know/learned strategy
    • - directed inquiry activity
    • - SQ3R
    • - plan
  96. Double entry journals, Unrau, 2008, (Skill 15.3)
    students answer questions as "prereading" and "postreading" activities
  97. Anticipation guides, Unrau, 2008, (Skill 15.3)
    list of statements that students react to before reding the text
  98. Directed teading-thinking activity, Stauffer, 1969, (Skill 15.3)
    teacher selects a text adn decides on stop points, ask questions that require students to make predictions
  99. Know/want-to-know/learned strategy, Ogle, 1986, (Skill 15.3)
  100. Prereading plan (PreP), Langer, 1981, (Skill 15.3)
    Students brainstorm associations with the topic to be read
  101. Directed inquiry activity (DIA), Thomas, 1986, (Skill 15.3)
    The teacher prepares several questions using who, what, when, where, why, and how to cover the content mastery goals of the text materials
  102. SQ3R, Robinson, 1946, (Skill 15.3)
    • Survey-skim material to get scope
    • Question-use titles and headlines to ask questions
    • Read-read the material
    • Recite-answer the questions you posed for yourself
    • Review-go back over material
  103. PLAN, Caverly, 1995, (Skill 15.3)
    • Predict-graphic representations of titles, heading, etc before reading the text
    • Locate-on the graphic representation, check mark what they know, question mark unfamiliar
    • Add-to graphic representation as they read
    • Note-students note new understandings
  104. Teachers can create a language-rich environment by (Skill 15.3)
    • -reading to students
    • -creating opportunities to use language
    • -recording student language on the board
  105. Balanced, comprehensive reading program, Schumm, 2006, (Skill 15.3)
    • -emphasis on student
    • -adequate personnel and material resources
    • -models developed at the school level
    • -a continuum of services
  106. Planning meaningful and purposeful literacy activities, (Skill 15.3)
    • -use literacy materials in dramatic play centers
    • -making posters of favorite books
    • -labeling classroom items
    • -writing morning messages
    • -recording questions and information on charts
  107. Tompkins, 2009, using standards-based thematic unit organization, (Skill 15.3)
    • -collect set of textbooks to use in the unit
    • -establish listening center
    • -plan learning-log activities
    • -identify language arts activities to be taught
    • -plan communicative activities and graphic organizers
    • -brainstorm possible projects
    • -plan monitoring activities such as checklists and rubrics to be used for assessment
  108. Suggestion, (Skill 15.3)
    A wide varitey of reading materials including books, poems, stories, and other materials in the classroom library
  109. Key skills (Skill 15.3)
    need to be taught in an organized and systematic manner
  110. Materials should be adapted (Skill 15.3)
    to meet the needs of children with special needs
  111. Scaffolding literacy actitives, O'Malley and Pierce 1996, (Skill 15.3)
    • -exhibits or projects
    • -visual displays
    • -organized lists
    • -tables or graphs
    • -short answers
  112. Listening, speaking, reading, and writing ... (Skill 15.3)
    are taught in an integrated fashion
  113. Language Experience Approach (LEA) ... (Skill 15.4)
    • -provide an experience
    • -talk about the experience
    • -record the dictation
    • -read the text
  114. Frontloading vocabulary and language function ... (Skill 15.4)
    is simply preteaching the vocabulary and language functions that might be unfamiliar to the students during the content lesson or reading session
  115. Interactive journals ... (Skill 15.4)
    are any type of journal that requires the students to write about classroom content or their feelings
  116. Unrau, 2008, benefits of shared reading ... (Skill 15.4)
    • -demonstrates the natural rhythm
    • -builds bridges between text and students real life
    • -provides practice in strategies
    • -models fluent reading
  117. Learning logs ... (Skill 15.4)
    are records of what students have learned
  118. Unrau, 2008, 5 stages of process writing ... (Skill 15.4)
    • -prewriting-brainstorm, notes
    • -drafting-selecting format, writing draft
    • -revising-review, rethink, rewrite
    • -proofreading-polish, spelling, grammar
    • -publishing-sharing, displaying
  119. Unrau, 2008, various types of graphic organizers ... (Skill 15.4)
    • -clusters-semantic mapping
    • -characteristics outliner-similar to cluster but more structured
    • -proces organizer or flowchart-organize each step in the process
    • -cause-effect organizer-causes connected to their own effect by an arrow
    • -problem-solution-evaluation organizer-appropriately labeled boxes are filled in with the corresponding information and connect by lines or arrows
    • -compare/contrast organizer-venn diagram
  120. Schumm, 2006, prereading activities ... (Skill 15.4)
    • are activities that prepare the student for reading
    • -building background knowledge
    • -making predictions
    • -word maps
    • -previewing
    • -picture walk
  121. California now uses five levels to classify ELLs ... (Skill 16.1)
    • -beginning
    • -early intermediate
    • -intermediate
    • -early advanced
    • -advanced
  122. When developing lesson plans to cover ELD and Content standards ... (Skill 16.2)
    the teacher must look at the content standards and decide which terms are most important to include in the ELD learning program
  123. ELLs need time to practice language development ... (Skill 16.3)
    in different settings and with different people, group work is ideal for this purpose
  124. Kame'enui and Simmons, 1998, when dealing with learning difficulties, use three groupings ... (Skill 16.3)
    • -benchmark group-making good progress, some difficulties
    • -strategic group-one or two standard deviations below the standard mean
    • -intensive group-students are seriously at risk because of chronically low performance
  125. Student-centered learning ... (Skill 16.4)
    focuses on the needs of the student while taking into account his/her abilities, interests and learning styles
  126. The physical setting of the classroom ... (Skill 16.5)
    supports learning both directly and indirectly.
  127. Language-rich environments ... (Skill 16.5)
    include posters and charts demonstrating various text styles and word walls for students to check on the spelling of the words they need
  128. To stimulate conversation, teachers can ask students ... (Skill 16.5)
    to bring objects from home related to the content of the lesson.
  129. Research-based teaching models (Friend and Bursuck, 2005) ... (Skill 16.6)
    • -One teach, one observe-one teacher teaches, the other observes and collects data
    • -One teach, one assist-one teacher teaches, the other assists students
    • -Parallel teaching-divide group in two and each teacher teaches the same thing/same time/different groups
    • -Station teaching-divide group, students go to stations
    • -Alternative teaching-teacher takes small group to side of room for instruction
    • -Team teaching-collaborative relationship, complementary styles, fluidly share instructional responsibilities
  130. Involve families to maximize student achievement .. (Skill 16.7)
    • -plan meetings at hours when working parents can attend
    • -invite parents to help in the classroom
    • -call parents/send home hand written letters
    • -create classroom newsletter
  131. Cummins, 1993-2000, recognizes 4 levels of difficulty in CALP ... (Skill 17.1)
    • Level 1-cognitive undemanding/context-embedded (talking with friends)
    • Level 2-cognitive undemanding/context-reduced (ordering book by phone)
    • Level 3-cognitively demanding/context-emgedded (solving math problems)
    • Level 4-cognitive demanding/context-reduced (proving math theorems)
  132. Modifying language without simplification ... (Skill 17.2)
    • -use synonyms to explain new vocabulary
    • -use cognates when know
    • -paraphrase and repeat the message
    • -use shorter and simplified sentences when explaining new concepts
  133. Scaffolding strategies ... (Skill 17.2)
    • a. modifiy language without simplification
    • b. activating students prior knowledge
    • c. using the primary language to facilitate learning
    • d. contextualizing language
    • e. using media, technological resources, and other visual supports
    • f. using realia, manipulatives, and other hands-on materials to take advantage of other modalities
    • g. using formative and summative assessment and reteaching
  134. To check for literal meaning ... (Skill 17.3)
    a simple quiz or oral questions are adequate.
  135. To check for inferential meaning ... (Skill 17.3)
    teachers can pose questions that require the student to read differeent sections of the text to answer the questions.
  136. Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA) ... (Skill 17.4)
    was designed for advanced beginners to intermediate learners.
  137. L2 learner approach ... (Skill 17.4)
    • -Metacognitive strategies
    • -planning-skim text
    • -monitoring-clarify concepts
    • -evaluating-self-evaluation
    • -Cognitive strategies
    • -activating prior knowledge-what do they already know
    • -taking notes-important words/concepts
    • -grouping the notes-outlines,maps
    • -linguistic transfer-names and cognates from L1
    • -Socioaffective strategies
    • -cooperative group work-work toward common goal
    • -self-talk-encourage self with a positive attitude
  138. Procedural Vocabulary ... (Skill 17.5)
    how to use the word, which form to use, and in what context
  139. Declarative Vocabulary ... (Skill 17.5)
    what a word means
  140. Conditional Knowledge ... (Skill 17.5)
    when to use a word
  141. Berman and Slobin, 1994, define form ... (Skill 17.5)
    as a broad range of linguistic/expressive devices.
  142. Berman and Slobin, 1994, define function ... (Skill 17.5)
    is the purposes served by the forms used in narrative discourse
  143. Genres ... (Skill 17.5)
    are a combination of communicative purpose, audience, and format. To teach genre-specific discourse skills, teachers instruct students in the components of each genre.
  144. Dictogloss ... (Skill 17.5)
    the teacher reads a text at a very fast pace, students write what they can, then group students to try to share notes to copy the whole thing
  145. Reading Graffiti ... (Skill 17.5)
    the teacher writes a comlete text on the board, students write questions or comments about it, discussion can follow.
  146. Floor Squares ... (Skill 17.5)
    students wander around the classroom looking at questions written on pieces of paper on the floor while music plays in the background, when music stops, students asks questions to students to those nearest them
  147. To increase comprehension ... (Skill 18.1)
    use repetition, formulaic expressions, gestures, facial expressions in the illustrations of texts and reading materials.
  148. Fillmore, 2001, and Allen, 1994, suggest ... (Skill 18.1)
    • -using multicultural texts
    • -using international texts
    • -introduce materials that contain simple whole language first
    • -encourage children to select their own books
  149. Blakey and Spence, 1990, recommend the following metacognitive strategies for all students ... (Skill 18.2)
    • -connect new information to old
    • -select thinking strategies
    • -plan, monitor, and evaluate
  150. Linguistic strategies ... (Skill 18.2)
    appropriate for all students and grade levels is to frontload vocabulary and structures used in the content lessons.
  151. Concept ... (Skill 18.2)
    schools have long been recognized as the primary agents of transmission of culture
  152. Gay, 2000, advocates taking the following approach in culturally responsive teaching ... (Skill 18.2)
    • -developing a cultural diversity knowledge base
    • -designing culturally relevant curricula
    • -demonstrating cultural caring
    • -building a learning community and cross-cultural communication
  153. Quiocho and Ulanoff, 2009, define muliticultural children's literature ... (Skill 18.3)
    as books that are read to and by children that depict people with diverse cultural, linguistic, socioeconomic, and religious backgrounds
  154. Technology provides teachers with programs and services appropriate for ELL classrooms ... (Skill 18.3)
    internet, ebooks, smartphones
  155. Rather, Rennie, 1993, suggest that successful EL programs ... (Skill 19.1)
    develop academic skills and English at the same time
  156. Communication must be ... (Skill 19.2)
    meaningful and purposeful for students to learn
  157. Zainuddin, 2007, lists the key features of communicative language teaching as described by Nunan, 1991, ... (Skill 19.2)
    • -focuses on meaning through interacgtion in the target language
    • -uses materials or texts that reflect authentic or real-world language
    • -allows learners to rehearse language used outsidethe classroom by focusing on language forms or skills and the learning process
    • -focuses on previous knowledge, experiences, or skills learners bring into the classroom as important contributors to language learning
    • -plans a careful link between classroom language and real-world language
  158. Communication is paramount ... (Skill 19.2)
    even if it contains errors or misstatements. Students need to interact with the teacher and their peers to advance their communication skills.
  159. Oral exercises for students ... (Skill 19.2)
    • -work on dialogs
    • -hold mock telephone conversations
    • -conduct surveys
    • -fill-in gap exercises by talking with other classmates
  160. Zainuddin, 2007, proposes the following exercises for writing ... (Skill 19.2)
    • -use labels and captions on bulletin boards
    • -use order forms for classroom supplies
    • -write checks for book orders
    • -write personal letters to sare news with a friend
    • -write essays in different forms
    • -enumeraion
    • -comparison/contrast
    • -problem/solution
    • -cause/effect
    • -thesis/proof
  161. Diaz-Rico, 2008, errors ... (Skill 19.3)
    are imperfect language structures that are systematic and part of the learner's developing language system
  162. Mistakes ... (Skill 19.3)
    are random occurrences caused by memory lapses or carelessness and should not be corrected
  163. Diaz-Rico, 2008, content-based ELD ... (Skill 19.4)
    is skills that are needed to acquire knowledge of content and that make it earsier for the student to read and write in the discipline
  164. Idea ... (Skill 20.1)
    ELD standards are not inteded to replace ELA standards but to provide scaffolding for students so they can eventually achieve the same performance objectives as native speakers of English
  165. Teachers must use every possible strategy to make stories/information comprehensible and allow both verbal/nonverbal responses ok by ... (Skill 20.2)
    repetition, gestures, facial expressions, realia, illustrations, slowing the pacing, tone of voice
  166. Teachers must provide ... (Skill 20.2)
    multiple opportunities for oral communication
  167. Teaching about advertisements and commercials .. (Skill 20.2)
    • -classroom surveys about products
    • -create own ads
    • -determine target group (age)
  168. Most effective strategy for improving student learning ... (Skill 20.3)
    is to activate prior knowledge through brainstorming questions
  169. Strategies for promoting students' knowledge, skills, and abilities ... (Skill 21.2)
    • -word anaysis-cognates, false cognates, prefixes, suffixes,
    • -fluency-duet reading, listen/repeat exercises, choral reading, singing
    • -systematic vocabulary development-jigsaw process
    • -reading comprehension-keywords, teach inferences
    • -literary response and analysis-illustrate a story, compare book/movie,
  170. ELA tell what not how, teachers ... (Skill 21.3)
    should feel free to adapt the ELD standards to meet their students' needs
  171. Multicultural texts in a variety of genres ... (Skill 21.4)
    have often been used to show ony positive images of minority cultures.
  172. Mora, 1993, SDSU, ELD student writing ... (Skill 21.5)
    can be expected to lag behind oral language development by one or two levels. The natural progression goes from words to sentences to paragraphs to narratives.
  173. The teacher knows ... (Skill 21.5)
    that the student gradually develops a sense of purpose for writing.
  174. The most successful teaching of language conventions ... (Skill 21.5)
    has been the presentation of well-written materials
  175. SDAIE Lessons should ... (Skill 22.1)
    include language objectives and grade-level content objectives in the lesson
  176. SDAIE Lessons should ... (Skill 22.1)
    determine task complexity and amount of scaffolding required
  177. SDAIE Lessons should ... (Skill 22.1)
    select multiple strategies to access and assess students' prior knowledge - KWL
  178. SDAIE Lessons should ... (Skill 22.1)
    identify strategies for creating background knowledge - word bank is one tool
  179. SDAIE Lessons should ... (Skill 22.1)
    identify ways to provide students with cognitively engaging input
  180. The student is more likely to recall and be able to use words ... (Skill 22.1)
    that he has spoken or written than those he/she has only heard or read
  181. It is important ... (Skill 22.1)
    that the affective filter be lowered which means that the student must not be embarrassed
  182. Words are best learned .. (Skill 22.1)
    in context rather than isolation
  183. Authentic communication ... (Skill 22.1)
    is always more effective than made-up or invented situations
  184. The teacher needs to have ... (Skill 22.1)
    • a variety of ways to model and provide opportunities for guided and independent practice to achieve language and content objectives
    • -show the numerals and pronounce the words
    • -tell phone numbers, etc
  185. Teacher must use a variety of methods to encourage students to use the new language rather than focusing only on comprehension ... (Skill 22.1)
    • -TPR
    • -duet reading
    • -races
    • -team drawing
  186. Teacher must use a variety of strategies ... (Skill 22.1)
    • to assess students' mastery of language and content objectives
    • -informal assessments
    • -simon says
  187. Schemata ... (Skill 22.2)
    need to be activated to draw upon the ELLs' previous knowledge and learning, especially when they may not have had experiences similar to those of the mainstream culture
  188. Teachers ... (Skill 22.2)
    need to analyze a lesson's key concepts and then contextualize them so that all students understand what the lesson is about
  189. Instructors ... (Skill 22.2)
    can bring in papers, projects, mind maps, and posters from previous classes to demonstate what is expected in a finished project
  190. Metacognitive strategies for ELL students include ... (Skill 22.2)
    centering your learning - review key concepts and link to prior knowledge
  191. Metacognitive strategies for ELL students include ... (Skill 22.2)
    arranging and planning your learning - regulate noise, temperature, lighting, reasonable long and short term goals
  192. Metacognitive strategies for ELL students include ... (Skill 22.2)
    evaluate your learning - keep track of errors, assess learning achievements
  193. Cognitive strategies are vital to second language acquisition ... PRAC ... (Skill 22.2)
    • Practicing - repetition, concentrate on sounds
    • Receiving and sending messages - quickly locate salient points
    • Analyzing and reasoning - breakdown unfamiliar passages
    • Creating structure for input and output - notes, highlighters
  194. Frontloading vocabulary ... (Skill 22.2)
    is a strong method of assuring reading success
  195. Provide clear models of expected performance outcomes ... (Skill 22.2)
    use rubrics to clarify misconceptions
  196. Transform text ... (Skill 22.2)
    from one genre to another genre
  197. Provide opportunities for ELs ... (Skill 22.2)
    to engage in analysis and interpretation of text, both oral and written
  198. Provide English Learners ... (Skill 22.2)
    with opportunities to learn and use forms of English language necessary to express content-specific academic language functions (e.g., analyzing, comparing, persuading, citing evidence, making hypotheses)
  199. Provide authentic opportunities ... (Skill 22.2)
    for ELs to use the English language for content-related communicative purposes with both native and nonnative speakers of English
  200. Assess attainment of lesson content ... (Skill 22.2)
    using multiple modalities (e.g., verbal, nonverbal)
  201. To ELs ... (Skill 22.2)
    provide comprehensible and meaningful corrective and positive feedback
  202. Each lesson given to ELL students must be considered in terms of SDAIE principles, ask ... (Skill 22.3)
    • 1. Am I using every tool possible to make the content of this lesson comprehensible?
    • 2. Is all new vocabulary contextualized?
    • 3. Am I creating a variety of ways to access the new content?
    • 4. Do my assessment methods accurately gather data about whether this material is understood by my students?
Card Set:
2011-06-04 19:41:45

CTEL Part 2
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