cerebral hemisphere

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Author:
Mon
ID:
87966
Filename:
cerebral hemisphere
Updated:
2011-05-26 23:26:48
Tags:
cerebral hemisphere cortex motor sensory accessory
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Description:
part C cerebral hemisphere
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  1. Cerebral hemisphere
    • - largest area of brain
    • - covers diencephalon & shows deep or shallow wrinkles
  2. median longitudinal fissure
    line dividing cerebral cortex into a left & right half
  3. transverse cerebral fissure
    seperates cerebral cortex from cerebellum
  4. Sulci
    grooves or furrows
  5. Gyri
    twisted brain ridges
  6. Deep sulci
    divides brain into lobes
  7. central sulcus
    seperates frontal & parietal lobes
  8. lateral sulcus
    seperates parietal & temporal lobe
  9. parieto-occipital sulcus
    seperates parietals & occipital lobes
  10. left hemisphere & right hemisphere
    left - control of language, math, & logic

    right - control of visual-spatial skills, intuition, art & music skills, and emotions
  11. commissures
    connecting fiber tracts communicate with hemispheres
  12. cerebral cortex
    controls consciousness & voluntary movement
  13. Primary motor cortex
    form tracts that reach motor neurons & control precise voluntary motor movements

    contains pyramidal cells
  14. premotor cortex
    controls even more complex movements & integrates highly processed sensory information received from other brain areas

    controls voluntary movement based on spatial arrangement information & is involved in planning movements
  15. broca's area
    language dominant; controls speech movements; produces mental images of sounds to be spoken; may also store short-term memory
  16. What are the three motor areas?
    primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, & broca's area
  17. Primary somatosensory cortex
    involved with conscious awareness of somatic senses
  18. somatosensory association area
    integrates sensory input for comprehensive understanding by relating it to past experience (ex. feeling an object & guessing what it is without seeing it)
  19. primary visual cortex
    largest sensory area that receives all visual information sent by the eye, but has low level of processing with information being sent to opposite sides
  20. visual association area
    surrounds primary visual cortext & continues to process information obtained by this area
  21. auditory areas
    evaluates/reconizes sound & stores memory of sound
  22. Wernicke's area
    recognizes spoken words
  23. Gustatory cortex
    involved in conscious awareness of taste & is located in tongue region of homunculus
  24. vestibular cortex
    involved in conscious awareness of balance & is found in posterior part of insula
  25. olfactory cortex
    involved in conscious awareness of smell; processes by piriform lobe, olfactory tract, & olfactory bulb
  26. What are the sensory areas?
    • peimary somatosensory cortex
    • somatosensory association area
    • primary visual cortex
    • visual association area
    • auditory areas
    • gustatory cortex
    • vestibular cortex
    • olfactory cortex
  27. prefrontal cortex
    seperates humans from other animals & is involved in thought, perception, & recall (cognition); essential for judgement, critical thinking, planning, socializing, & some aspects of emotion
  28. general interpretation area
    integrates sensory information & not well understood
  29. language area
    large area in left cerebral hemisphere that has five indentified areas (Broca's, Wernicke's, speech comprehension, coordination of auditory & visual aspects of language, word articulation & recognition
  30. Insula
    not well understood & functions in language, balance
  31. What are the association areas?
    • prefrontal cotex
    • general interpretation area
    • language area
    • insula
  32. commissures (fibers)
    connect related gray matter areas between the two hemispheres (run horizontally) & includes corpus callosum
  33. association fibers
    horizontal fibers connecting different areas of same hemisphere
  34. projection fibers
    vertical fibers taking sensory information to appropriate area in cerebral cortex & carry away motor instructions
  35. Basal Nuclei
    neural calculators controlling movement by cooperating with cerebral cortex & can esttimate time

    - sends their output to motor cortex & includes caudate, lentiform, amygdala

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