Types of Reference Groups
Contactual: A formal or informal group that a person has direct contact with. The person also tends to agree with the values, attitudes, and behaviours of the group.
Aspirational –The person would like to belong to this group. At the moment they only have indirect or symbolic membership. This may take the form of emulating the behaviours of the group through mirroring what they wear or mimicking some other behaviour.
Disclaimant: The person has direct contact and/or membership with a group. But the person disapproves with the values, attitudes, and behaviours of the group.
Avoidance: The person does not hold membership to the group. The person does not want to identify with the group or be identified by others as belonging to the group.
E.g. work, friendship, virtual.