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The transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver via a medium.
Sender (encodes) Message - Channel - Receiver (decodes) - Response - then feedback
Message Framing: Positive and Negative
- Positve: Stresses benefits (19/20 curable)
- Negative: Stresses what could be lost (1/20 deadly)
Emotional advertising appeals
A persuasive message can tug at the heartstrings or scare you, make you laugh, cry, or leave you yearning to learn more.
Fear, Humour, Agony, Abrasive, Sex
Emphasise the negative consequences that can occur unless the consumer changes a behaviour or an attitude
Fear: a negatively valenced emotion, accompanied by a high level of arousal
link with "attitude toward the ad"
- A person/group that serves as a point of comparison (or reference) for an individual. These groups:
- act as guides for behaviour
- and help consumers form their values, attitudes.
Normative and Comparative Reference Groups
Normative: Influence values and behaviour (children = parents)
Comparative: Serve as a benchmark for attitudes and behaviours.
Types of Reference Groups
Contactual: A formal or informal group that a person has direct contact with. The person also tends to agree with the values, attitudes, and behaviours of the group.
Aspirational –The person would like to belong to this group. At the moment they only have indirect or symbolic membership. This may take the form of emulating the behaviours of the group through mirroring what they wear or mimicking some other behaviour.
Disclaimant: The person has direct contact and/or membership with a group. But the person disapproves with the values, attitudes, and behaviours of the group.
Avoidance: The person does not hold membership to the group. The person does not want to identify with the group or be identified by others as belonging to the group.
E.g. work, friendship, virtual.
Reference Group Appeals
- The expert
- Trade characters
- Common person
- Other group appeals
Reference groups influence purchase, consumption and communication behaviours.