chapter 4 biology
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what are hydrocarbons?
an organic compound that consists of only hydrogen and carbon
what are isomers?
one of many compounds that have the same molecular formula but a different structure. which gives it different properties.
what are the three types of isomers?
has the same molecular formula but differs in the covalent arrangement of the atoms
same molecular formula and covalent arrangement but have a different spatial arrangement of the atoms due to the inflexibility of double bonds
isomers that are mirror images of each other
the middle carbon is called an asymetric carbon because its attached to 4 different atoms or groups of atoms.
a specific configuration of atoms attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
- a hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom which is bonded to the carbon skeleton of the organic molecule
- a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond
- an oxygen atom that is double bonded to a carbon that is also bonded to an -OH group
a nitrogen atom bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton
a sulphur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom. resembles a hydroxyl group in shape.
a phosphorous atom bonded to 4 oxygen atoms. one oxygen is bonded to the carbon skeleton and 2 oxygens have - charges
- (-OPO3H2) carbon bonded to three hydrogen atoms.
- the methyl group may be attached to a carbon or a different atom.
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