Quiz - The History of Archaeology

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Quiz - The History of Archaeology
2011-05-27 08:20:20

From Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice (4th edition), 2006, Renfrew and Bahn, Thames & Hudson
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  1. According to the then-standard interpretation of the Bible, in the 19th Century people believed the world was created in what year?
    4004 BC
  2. Which historical figure completed excavations and housed his finds in a museum?
  3. Who formed the first cabinets of curiosities?
    Renaissance princes
  4. Who conducted the first scientific excavation?
    Thomas Jefferson
  5. During the 20th century the first excavations at Pompeii below the ground level of the AD 79 volcanic eruption were carried out by
    Amedeo Mairui
  6. The dimensions of the Villa of the Papyri at which site were followed by J. Paul Getty in the construction of his museum at Malibu, California?
  7. In what year did Vesuvius erupt, burying Pompeii under layers of volcanic ash and Herculaneum in volcanic mud?
    AD 79
  8. Which one of these scripts was on the Rosetta Stone?
  9. Greek
  10. Who produced the superbly illustrated books on the Maya in the 1840s after a visit to Mexico?
    Catherwood and Stephens
  11. Who was the author of Ancient Society (1877), a work which strongly influenced Marx?
    Lewis Henry Morgan
  12. The final decipherment of cuneiform by Henry Rawlinson took place in the
  13. 1850s
  14. Who were some of the key figures in the development of a sound methodology of scientific archaeology in the late 19th century?
    All of the above (General Pitt-Rivers, Dorothy Garrod, William Flinders Petrie)
  15. Scientific archaeology in South America owes much to which archaeologist?
    Max Uhle
  16. Which early 20th century archaeologist, the author of "Man Makes Himself," was influenced by Russia's Marxist Revolution?
    Gordon Childe
  17. Where was Grahame Clark’s landmark archaeological investigation in the 1950s, demonstrating how much information could be gleaned from what appeared to be an unpromising site?
    Star Carr
  18. What was invented in 1949 by the American chemist Willard Libby?
    Radiocarbon dating
  19. Who were some of the women pioneers in the early days of archaeology?
    All of the above (Dorothy Garrod, Mary Leakey, Tatiana Proskouriakoff)
  20. Pioneers of the well-focused research design included:
    All of the above (Robert Braidwood, Robert Adams, Kent Flannery and Joyce Marcus, Louis and Mary Leakey)
  21. As part of the postprocessual movement Ian Hodder and his Cambridge students stressed the influential argument that:
    A and B (There is no single correct way to make archaeological inference; our interpretation of the past involves choices that depend on the feelings and opinions of the researchers)
  22. With whom did Archaeologists John Mulvaney and Rhys Jones stood shoulder to shoulder to prevent the destruction of cultural heritage?
    Australian Aborigines
  23. What is androcentrism?
    Male bias
  24. Who are some of the interest groups involved in the anthropological project at Çatalhöyük?
    All of the above (Local community, goddess worshippers, fashion designers, foreign tourists)
  25. Which excavator of Çatalhöyük is famous for his engagement with a variety of groups with interest in the site?
    Ian Hodder
  26. One of the positive aspects of the archaeology of the 1990s was
    All of the above (a realization that cultural heritage is an important part of the human environment; archaeologists have an important role to play in achieving a balanced view of our present world based on an examination of the past; the task of interpretation is more complex than originally thought)
  27. Introduced by James Hutton and reaffirmed by Charles Lyell, uniformitarianism is the principle that
    Processes at work in the past have to be the same as processes observable in the present
  28. One of the first to argue that the “Moundbuilders” were in fact ancestors of living Native American Indians was:
    Samuel Haven
  29. In North America, the influential anthropologist Julian Steward emphasized the importance of environmental adaptation in cultural change. This approach was termed
    Cultural ecology
  30. ______________ is a classification system devised by C. J. Thomsen, for the sequence of technological periods (stone, bronze, and iron) in Old World prehistory. It established the principle that by classifying artifacts, one could produce chronological ordering.
    The Three Age System
  31. Evolution, associated with Charles Darwin and highly influential on many other thinkers (such as Karl Marx, Oscar Montelius and others), also set the groundwork for the study of
    Artefact typology
  32. Contradicting the prevailing wisdom of the time, excavations led by ____________ at Great Zimbabwe (1929) confirmed that the site was of indigenous African origin.
    Gertrude Caton-Thompson
  33. Giuseppe Fiorelli used plaster of Paris to fill the cavities left by decayed bodies at Pompeii.
  34. The antiquity of humankind proved that the biblical flood occurred.
  35. Mary Leakey was a cigar-smoking, whisky-drinking archaeologist.
  36. The Evolution of Culture by Leslie White and Julian Steward strongly influenced the postprocessualists.
  37. Napoleon deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphic writing
  38. Samuel Haven argued that there was a probable link between Native Americans and the Asiatic races.
  39. Like anthropologist Julian Steward, British archaeologist Grahame Clark broke away from the dependence on artifacts of the cultural-historical approach and argued for the multi-disciplinary efforts of specialists to understand plant and animal remains
  40. The age of epic heroes was one of the stages envisioned by Hesiod
  41. Discoveries made by Louis and Mary Leakey indicate that our earliest ancestors date to only a few thousand years earlier than recognized at the beginning of the 20th century
  42. The hermeneutic view rejects the attempts toward generalization.