From Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice (4th edition), 2006, Renfrew and Bahn, Thames & Hudson
Which of the following is not an ecofact?
What prompted archaeologists to recognise the importance of identifying and accurately recording associated remains?
The discovery of stone tools and bones of extinct animals discovered in sealed deposits.
Primary context can be destroyed not only by looters but also by
Wind and water erosion
Studies of cutmarks on animal bones by which two archaeologists, among others, showed that humans with stone tools may have often scavenged rather than hunted?
C.K. Brain and Lewis Binford
The aim of the experimental archaeology project at Overton Down, England, is
to discover what happens to materials (textiles, leather, pottery) buried in an earthwork over time
Cultural formation processes can be roughly divided into two types
Before a site is buried and after site burial
__________ is crucial to reconstructing the original activity at a site.
Understanding which stage in the process is being examined
In what ways can humans deliberately destroy the archaeological record?
All of the above
Which are inorganic materials in the following list?
Archaeological electrolysis is used to
Remove metallic salts from objects immersed in the sea
What metal favours the preservation of organic remains by preventing the activity of destructive micro-organisms?
The survival of organic materials is determined largely by
Matrix and climate
Excavations at the site of Ozette, Washington, were an excellent example of cooperation between archaeologists and indigenous peoples. The _______ Indians and archaeologist Richard Daughtery worked together to recover over 50,000 artefacts.
The tomb of Tutankhamun was discovered by ______ and _______ in 1922 in an amazing state of preservation due to the hot, dry climate of Egypt.
Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon
A combination of salt and ____ aided in the preservation of a woolly rhinoceros at Starunia, Poland with skin intact.
The cold environment at Pazyryk in southern Siberia was a factor in the unusually good organic preservation in tombs there, resulting in the survival of the most fragile materials, including
All of the above
The Ice Maiden, found on Peru’s Ampato Volcano, was most likely a
Waterlogged sites, as found in lakes, swamps, marshes, fens and peat bogs, effectively seal organic material in an environment that is
The preservation of corpses in peat bogs varies widely and often depends on the particular conditions. One of the best preserved examples of a bog body is
Denmark's Tollund Man
Experimental archaeology involving the construction of an earthwork at Overton Down, England, indicates that
Preservation was better in the chalk bank, and preservation of leather and pottery was unchanged after 4 years
Protected from outside climatic effects, caves may act as natural ‘conservatories’ creating local climates that can promote the preservation of organic remains. True or False?
Perhaps the only drawback in the study of waterlogged wood is the impossibility of tree-ring dating such material. True or False?
Artefacts underwater in the sea can sometimes be recovered, although seawater is one of the most destructive forces; but once coated with a thick hard casing of metallic salts (e.g. chlorides, sulphides and carbonates) the artefacts are permanently lost to time. True or False?
Except for special circumstances, survival of organic materials is typically limited to cases of extreme moisture, such as very arid, frozen, or waterlogged conditions. True or False?
Fired clay, such as pottery or baked mud-brick, is virtually indestructible if well fired. True or False?
Metals such as gold, silver and lead survive well. True or False?
One of the remarkable points about Otzi, the Iceman found in the Alps, is that he was a prehistoric human preserved with his everyday clothing and equipment, rather than carefully buried or sacrificed. True or False?
Provenience is the horizontal and vertical position of an artefact within the matrix. True or False?
Stone tools typically survive very poorly in the archaeological record, and are rarely discovered beyond approximately 5000 years ago. True or False?
Arid conditions prevent decay through the shortage of water, which limits the ability of micro-organisms to survive. True or False?