Micro Exam II.txt

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kackerson
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Micro Exam II.txt
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2010-03-02 05:50:18
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Micro Exam II
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Micro Exam II
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  1. What are the four basic tissues?
    CMEN- Connective, Muscle, Epithelium, Nervous Tissue
  2. Define primary epithelia
    embryologically derived from ectoderm or endoderm
  3. Define Secondary epithelia-
    Comes from mesenchymal cells (endothelium and mesothelium)
  4. Name the three types of epithelia-
    Lining, Glandular and Specific
  5. Simple, stratified and pseudostratified are all examples of what kind of epithelia?
    Lining epithelia
  6. Define endothelium:
    Simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart cavities, blood vessels and lymph vessels
  7. Define Mesothelium:
    Simple squamous epithelium that lines the three serous body cavities (pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial) and covers organs located in these cavities.
  8. What is the name for highly specialized epithelium and what is it's function?
    Transitional- to stretch Ex: Urinary bladder
  9. What makes up the H band in skeletal muscle tissue?
    Thick, myosin filaments
  10. What makes up the I band in skeletal muscle tissue?
    Thin, actin filaments
  11. What is the A band made up of?
    Actin and myosin filaments (thick and thin)
  12. What is the Z line?
    It bisects the I band in skeletal muscle. It is used to orient the A filaments
  13. What is the M line?
    It bisects the H band in skeletal muscle
  14. Give examples of true and functional syncytium:
    True= skeletal muscle, Funtional= Cardiac muscle (communicating through gap junctions)
  15. What surrounds a muscle fiber?
    Endomysium
  16. What surrounds a fasicle?
    Perimysium
  17. What surrounds a muscle?
    Epimysium
  18. What resides between two Z lines?
    Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
  19. Where is a triad found and what is it consisted of?
    Found in skeletal muscle and consists of twoterminal cistern and one t-tubule
  20. Define terminal cisternae:
    expanded ends of sarcoplasmic reticulum
  21. Where is a diad and what is it made of?
    A diad is found in Cardiac Muscle and consists of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and one t-tubule
  22. Name the 6 events in the contraction sequence of a muscle:
    • 1. AP causes release of CA2+ at motor end plate
    • 2. Depolarization of sarcolemma
    • 3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum releases Ca2+
    • 4. Ca2+ binds TnC
    • 5. Myosin heads bind to Actin
    • 6. Racheting occurs to contract the muscle (Z-lines come closer together)
  23. Define merocrine/eccrine:
    Secreting the cell substance
  24. Define Apocrine:
    Secreting the apex of the cell and it's contents
  25. Define holocrine:
    Secreting the entire cell
  26. What is a serous substance:
    Watery substance
  27. What is a mucous substance:
    Viscous
  28. What is a sebaceous substance?
    Lipid like and oily
  29. What is a mixed substance?
    Watery and mucousy
  30. T/F An endocrine gland has a duct?
    False- ductless ex: thyroid, adrenal, parathyroid
  31. T/F An exocrine gland has a duct?
    True Ex: Gastric, uterine, salivary, pancreas glands
  32. Define adenomere-
    Produces glandular product
  33. Define duct-
    Transport glandular product
  34. Give examples (locations) of the following tissues: 1) Mucous Connective Tissue 2) Loose Connective Tissue 3)Dense Irregular Connective Tissue 4) Dense Regular Connective Tissue 5) Reticular Connective Tissue 6) Pigmented Connective Tissue
    • 1. Mucous Connective- Umbilical Cord
    • 2. Loose Connective Tissue- Most tissues, colon
    • 3. Dense Irregular CT- digital pad, reticular layer
    • 4. Dense Regular CT- tendon, ligament, cornea
    • 5. Reticular CT- Most tissue, principal type in lymphatic structures
    • 6. Pigmented CT- Iris, choroid, sclera of the eye
  35. Where is hyaline cartilage found?
    Fetal bones, growth plates, articular cartilage, costochondral junctions, nasal septum, larynx, trachea, bronchi
  36. Where is Elastic cartilage found?
    Pinna, epiglottis, external auditory, laryngeal cartilage
  37. Where is fibrocartilage found?
    intervertebral disks, menisci, tendon insertions, pubic symphysis
  38. What can a deficiency of collagen type III fibers cause?
    Fragile skin syndrome (Ehlers-Danlos and HERDA)
  39. Reticular fibers are what type of Collagen fiber?
    Type III
  40. Where is Type I collagen Fiber found?
    bone, dentin, dermis, tendons (fibrocartilage also)
  41. Where is Type II collagen found?
    Cartilage
  42. Where is Type III collagen found?
    Reticular fibers found in spleen, liver, lymph node CV system, lymphatics
  43. Where is Type IV collagen fiber found?
    basement membranes
  44. Vitamin C is a cofactor in what?
    Collagen formation
  45. Fibroblasts are derived from what?
    Totipotent mesenchymal cells
  46. What do Mast Cells release?
    • Histamine and Heparin
    • Histamine Vasodialates and bronchoconstricts
    • Heparine anticoagulant
  47. Plasma Cells are derived from?
    B Lymphocytes
  48. Name the five CT types:
    • 1. Mucous -embryonic and fetal tissue only
    • 2. Proper- dense and loose
    • 3. Reticular
    • 4. Pigmented
    • 6. Adipose- Brown and White
  49. Elastic fibers are made up of what?
    Smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts
  50. Possible causes of edema:
    • 1. Venous return problem
    • 2. Blocked lymphatic vessel
    • 3. plasma protein changes
    • 4. capillary damage
  51. Osteoblasts originate from what?
    Pluripotent mesenchymal cells
  52. Osteoids are made up of what?
    Collagen type I and proteoglycans
  53. Parathyroid hormone stimulates what?
    Stimulates osteoblasts to release osteoclast stimulating hormone
  54. Bone matrix is made up of what?
    Collagen type I fibers (fibrous) and osteomucoid and minerals (amorphous)
  55. Give structure percentages of bone matrix:
    • 69% inorganic (stores Ca2+ as hydroxyapatite)
    • 22% organic (mostly collagen)
    • 9% water
  56. Define Volkmann Canal:
    Communicating branch between aversion canals of osteons
  57. Define Howship's Lacunae:
    Area of erosion after an osteoclast has gone indicating resorption
  58. Osteogenesis originates from what?
    Mesenchymal somites
  59. Estrogen inhibits what?
    Bone resorption
  60. Calcitonin stimulates what and how?
    Stimulates bone formation by inhibition of osteoclastic action. It stimulates osteoid formation by osteoblasts and decreases serum calcium
  61. What are the three stages of bone remodeling?
    • 1. Activation
    • 2. Resorption
    • 3. Formation
  62. What are the three types of osteons?
    • 1. Resorption Osteons- lined by osteoclasts
    • 2. Forming Osteons- lined by osteoblasts
    • 3. Mature osteons
  63. Bone growth in length=
    Endochondral ossification
  64. Growth in epiphyses diameter=
    cells of articular cartilage
  65. Growth in diaphyses diameter=
    periosteal apposition, endosteal resorption
  66. Which cartilage layer lacks a perichondrium?
    Firocartilage
  67. Interstitial growth in cartilage involves what?
    Mitotic divisions of chondrocytes within the matrix making up isogenous nests
  68. Appositional growth within cartilage involves what?
    Chondroblasts from the perichondrium dividing and secreting new matrix

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