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Two major dysfunctions present in the process of cancer
- defective cellular proliferation
- defective cellular differentiation
normal cellular genes that are improtant regulators of norm cell processes that keep them in their mature, functioning state
When protooncogenes are mutated they can act as?
oncogenes (tumor- inducing genes)
Benign neoplasms are
Malignan neoplasms range from
well-differentiated to undifferentiated
Initiation of cancer can be caused by?
- genetic structure/ inherited mutation
- an error that occurs during DNA replication
- exposure to a chemical, radiation or a viral agent
Promotion of cancer is
characterized by reversible proliferation of the altered cells
Progession the final stage is
characterized by ^ growth rate of the tumor, ^ invasiveness, and spread of the cancer to a distant site (metatasis)
most frequent sites of metastasis are
- adrenal glands
The process by which cancer cells evade the immune sys. is
tumor-associated antigens are
altered surface antigens on the cell
oncofetal antigens are
a type of antigen that cen be used as a tumor marker to moitor the effect of therapy and indicate tumor recurrence
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