Med Surg

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  1. Two major dysfunctions present in the process of cancer
    • defective cellular proliferation
    • defective cellular differentiation
  2. Protooncogenes are
    normal cellular genes that are improtant regulators of norm cell processes that keep them in their mature, functioning state
  3. When protooncogenes are mutated they can act as?
    oncogenes (tumor- inducing genes)
  4. Benign neoplasms are
    well differentiated
  5. Malignan neoplasms range from
    well-differentiated to undifferentiated
  6. Initiation of cancer can be caused by?
    • genetic structure/ inherited mutation
    • an error that occurs during DNA replication
    • exposure to a chemical, radiation or a viral agent
  7. Promotion of cancer is
    characterized by reversible proliferation of the altered cells
  8. Progession the final stage is
    characterized by ^ growth rate of the tumor, ^ invasiveness, and spread of the cancer to a distant site (metatasis)
  9. most frequent sites of metastasis are
    • lungs
    • bone
    • brain
    • liver
    • adrenal glands
  10. The process by which cancer cells evade the immune sys. is
    immunologic escape
  11. tumor-associated antigens are
    altered surface antigens on the cell
  12. oncofetal antigens are
    a type of antigen that cen be used as a tumor marker to moitor the effect of therapy and indicate tumor recurrence
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Med Surg
2011-05-27 15:14:20

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