Memory S2M1

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  1. Declarative memory
    Facts like what, where, and why
  2. What are the two types of declarative memory
    • Episodic- Momory of life events
    • Semantic- Memory of meanings and understandings
  3. What structures are invloved in Procedural memory
    • Basal Ganglia
    • Cerebellum
  4. Procedural memory is most often affected by damage to what kind of structures, and what are some diseases that cause this
    • Basal Ganglia
    • - Huntingtons
    • - Parkinsons
  5. Working memory requires what portion of the brain
    Prefrontal cortex
  6. What is working memory
    • Type of short term memory
    • Limited capacity of 7 plus or minus 2 words or numbers
  7. Storage of memory takes place where
    Cerebral cortex
  8. What are some important factors to learning and memory
    • Nutrition
    • Stress
    • Temperature
    • Blood oxygen
    • Sleep
  9. What is one of the most important structures in memory
  10. What are the two limbic system nuclei groups that are required for longterm memories
    • Medial Temporal Lobe structures
    • - Hippocampus
    • - Entorhinal cortex & Parahippocampal gyrus
    • Diencephalon
    • - Mammillary bodies
    • - Medialdorsal & anterior thalamic nuclei
  11. What circuit is important to memory formation
    Papez Circuit
  12. Long Term Potentiation (LTP)
    • High frequency of stimulation of the brain in specific synapses that causes long term memory
    • Repetition
  13. Long Term Potentiation requires what receptors
  14. What is the sequence of events that triggers the postsynaptic NMDA receptor
    • NMDA blocked by Mg++
    • Glutamate binds AMPA receptor in same cell
    • Cell is depolarized and releases Mg++ from NMDA
    • Ca++ floods in
    • Nitric Oxide synthase is activated
    • NO increases the Glutamate release from presynaptic cell
  15. What is the importance of the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus
    When the density of receptors in CA3 are reduced memories are harder to access (Older people exhibit this)
  16. The CA1 region of the Thalamus is vulnerable to plaque formation in what disease
  17. Anterograde vs Retrograde amnesia
    • Anterograde - inability to remember future events
    • Retrograde - inability to remember past events
  18. A forinx lesion would have what effect on memory
    Minor disruption of memory
  19. Bilateral Hippocampal lesions have what effect on memory
    Major disruption of memory functions
  20. Unilateral Hippocampal lesions have what affect on memory
    Little to no impairment
  21. Anterograde amnesia is often caused by what type of lesion
    Bilateral medial temporal lobe lesion
  22. Retrograde amnesia is often caused by what type of lesion
    They are generalized and not specific
  23. What portions of the brain is preferentially attacked in Alzheimers
    • Hippocampus
    • Temporal cortex
    • Basal forebrain
  24. Individuals with Alzheimers have what type of memory loss normally
    The deficits are greater in the sematic aspects rather then the episodic memories
  25. Wernickes-Korsakoff syndrome
    • Vision problems, ataxia, and short term memory loss
    • Results from Thiamine (Vit B1) deficiency associtated with chronic alchoholism or malnutrition
  26. What specifically is often affected in Wernickes-Korsakoffs syndrome
    • Mammillary bodies
    • Medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus
    • Cerebellar vermis
    • CN III, IV, VI, VIII
  27. Korsakoffs syndrome
    • Severe Anterograde and Retrograde amnesia as well as confabulation
    • Bilateral damage to the Mammillary bodies and the medialdorsal nucleus of the thalamus
  28. Confabulation
    Confusion of imagination with reality
  29. The prefrontal cortex is important for what type of memory
    • Working memory
    • Rule learning
    • Makes one responsible and classy
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Memory S2M1
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