chapter 12 CNS.txt

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  1. Brain
    • The brain is composed to 100 billion neurons
    • Neurons communicate with each other or with other organs through synapses formation
    • Divide into four major portions:
    • Cerebrum-decision making
    • Diencephaon-
    • Brain stem-
    • Cerebellum-
  2. The cerebrum
    • The brain is made of two hemispheres:
    • Right and left
    • there are five lobes within the cerecral hemisphere:
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • temporal
    • occipital
    • insula
  3. Frontal lobe (commands; motor lobe)
    • Forms the anterior portion of each cerebral hemisphere
    • Location of the primary motor cortex
    • Stimulate skeletal muscles
    • Reasonable for speech production
    • Function in concentration, planning and problem solving
  4. Parietal lobe
    • Located posterior to the frontal lobe
    • Central sulcus separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe
    • Receives sensory information from the skin
    • Understanding speech
  5. Temporal lobe
    • Located below the frontal lobe and parietal lobes
    • Function in receiving auditory stimuli
  6. Occipital lobe
    • forms the posterior portion of cerebral hemisphere
    • Important in visual stimuli
  7. Diencephalon
    • Made of two regions
    • Thalamus
    • hypothalamus
  8. Thalamus
    • central relay station for sensory impulses
    • It receives all sensory information except the sense of smell
    • Channels all the inputs into the proper region of the brain
  9. Hypothalamus
    • Regulates heart rate and blood pressure
    • Body temperature
    • Water and electrolytes balance
    • Control of hunger and body weight
    • Controls the secretion of the posterior pituitary gland
    • Sleep and wakefulness
  10. Midbrain
    • Contains the corticospinal tract responsible for connection between the cortex and spinal cord
    • Contains ceners for visual reflex and auditory reflex
  11. Pons
    • Located below the midbrain
    • Contains respiratory centers
  12. Medulla oblongata
    • Contains cardiac center
    • Heart rate
    • Vasomotor center
    • Stimulate smooth muscles arround blood vessels
    • Affects blood pressure
    • Respiratory center
    • Regulates respiratory center
    • (Sneezing, coughing, swallowing, vomiting center)
  13. Cerebellum
    • Located below the occipital lobe
    • Consists of two lateral hemispheres
    • Communicates with various parts of the cerebrum
    • Provides coordination of skeletal muscle movements
    • Integrates balance information
  14. Ventricles of the brain
    • The brain contains interconnected cavities called ventricles
    • The cavities contain a fluid called the cerebrospinal fluid
    • Lateral ventricle, third ventricle, and fourth ventricle
  15. How does the cerebrospinal fluid circulate in the bran?
    • From the lateral ventricle, CSF ciculates through the interventricle foramen to the third ventricle
    • From the third ventricle, the CSF goes to the fourth ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct
    • From the fourth ventricle, CSF travels through the central canal to the spinal cord and to the subarachnoid space
  16. Function of cerebrospinal fluid
    • Supports and protect the brain by acting as a shock absorber
    • Maintain a stable ionic concentration
    • Provide a pathway of waste products to the blood
  17. Protection of the brain
    • The brain controls every function in the body and therefore must be heavily protected from trauma and injury
    • there are four levels of protection:
    • Skull
    • Meninges
    • Cerebrospinal fluid
    • Blood brain barrier
    • Skull
    • Four major bones
    • Frontal
    • Parietal
    • Temporal
    • Occipital
    • Bones are connected together by strong fibrous suture joint
  18. Meninges
    • Have three layers
    • Dura matter-
    • Tough white fibrous connective tissue
    • Contains many blood vessels
    • Archnoid
    • Thin membrane without blood vessels
    • Pia
    • Very thin membrane that contains blood vessels to nourish underlying nervous tissue
  19. Blood brain barrier
    • Chemical protection made of tight capillary network that prevents many chem and toxic material from passing to the brain
    • However it is not a complete barrier
    • It permits oxygen, glucose, anesthetic & alcohol to pass through to the brain
  20. Spinal cord
    • Slender nerve column that passes from the brain at the level of foramen magnum
    • Consists of 31 segments where 31 pairs of spinal nerves originate
    • Tapers and terminates at l1-l2
    • Have two enlargements that give rise to nerves
  21. Anatomy of the spinal cord
    • Protected by vertebral column
    • Surrounded by three layers of the meninges
    • Roots extend to become spinal nerves
  22. Cross section of the spinal cord
    • Anterior median fissure is a groove that divides the spinal cord into right and left halves
    • Central gray matter is surrounded by white matter
    • Upper and lower wings of the gray matter are called posterior and anterior
    • Lateral horn is located laterally on the gray matter
    • White matter is divided into anterior, lateral, and posterior finiculi
    • The CSF circulates in the central canal
  23. Function of the spinal cord
    • The amterior horn contain cell bodies of motor neurons
    • Posterior and lateral horns contain interneurons
    • The white matter contain nerve tracts
  24. Ascending tracts
    • Spinothalamic tract
    • Carry information from the spinal cord to the thalamus
  25. Descending tract
    • Corticospinal tract
    • Originates in the cortex of the brain and carries electrical signals to skeletal muscles
Card Set
chapter 12 CNS.txt
centeral nervous system
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