chapter 18-19.txt

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dwatters
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chapter 18-19.txt
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2011-05-27 18:07:07
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chapter 18-19
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  1. Audio recording started: 5:32 PM Tuesday, April 26, 2011
  2. Lecture exam 3: 4/28
    Aftenoon lab: exam @ 2:15
  3. The cardiovascular system
    • � A closed syestem of the heart and blood vessels
    • ? The heart pumps blood
    • ? The blood vessels provide the path for the blood to travel
  4. Function of the cardiovascular system
    • � To provide oxygen and nutrients to various parts of the body
    • � To remove carbon dioxide and waste products from the cells
  5. Circulations of the heart
    • � The cardiovascular system has two circulations:
    • ? Systemic circulation
    • � Delivers oxygenated blood from the heart to the body
    • ? Pulmonary circulation
    • � Delivers deoxygenated from the heart to the lungs
  6. Membrane of the heart
    • � The heart is covered y fibrous pericardium made of connective tissue
    • � Below it, there is double membrane
    • ? Parietal
    • ? Visceral
    • ? The pericardium cavities forms in between these two members
  7. Wall of the heart
    • � Three distict leyers:
    • ? Outer epicardium
    • � Which is the visceral pericardium
    • � Reduces friction
    • ? Middle myocardium
    • � Consists of cardiac muscle tissue
    • ? Inner endocardium
    • � Consists of epithelium cells and connective tissue
  8. � The heart has four valves:
    • ? Tricuspid valve
    • � Between the right artium and the right ventricle
    • ? Bicuspid valve
    • � Between the left artium and the left ventricle
    • ? Pulmonary valve
    • � Between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk
    • ? Aortic valve
    • � Between the left and the aorta
  9. Chambers of the heart
    • � The heart has four chambers
    • ? Right atrium
    • ? Right ventricle
    • ? Left atrium
    • ? Left ventricle
    • � The interventricle septum separates the right and left ventricles
  10. Blood vessels of the heart
    • � Superior vena cava
    • ? Returns deoxygenated blood from all structures above diaphragm to the heart
    • � Inferior vena cava
    • ? Returns deoxygenated blood from all structures below diaphragm to the heart
    • � Pulmonary trunk
    • ? Takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
    • � Pulmonarty veins
    • ? Brings oxygenated blood from the lungs to left atrium
    • � Aorta
    • ? Delivers oxygenated blood from left ventricle to the body
  11. Pathway of the blood through the heart
    • The blood travels to the heart through the superior and inferior vena cavae to the right atrium
    • From the right atrium the blood goes through the tricuspid valve
  12. Heart cycle
    • � When the heart is contracted, it is reffered to as systole
    • � When the heart is relaxed, it is referred to as diastole
    • � during stole both the aortic and pulmonary volves are open
    • � During diastole both the tricuspid and bicuspid valves are open
  13. Electral activitiy of the heart
    • � The heart is a cardiac muscle tissue that is constantly contracting (heart beat)
    • ? Q: how does the heart contract?
    • ? A: specialized cells called pacemaker cells that generate their own electrical activities
  14. Pacemaker cells
    • � Sinoatrial node (SA) locarted in the right atrium
    • � Atrioventricular node (AV) locaded on the interatrial septum
    • � Bundle of HIS: located on the interventricular septum
    • � Purkinje fibers: located on the ventricular walls
  15. Electrocardiogram
    • � Is a tool to measure the electrical activities of the heart
    • � Electrodes are placed on the body to measure the electrical changes that occur during a cardiac cycle
    • � P wave: atrial depolartization (contration)
    • � QRS complex: ventricular depolarization (contraction)
    • � T wave: ventricular repolarization (relaxation)
  16. Blood vessels
    • � from closed circute tubes that carry blood from the heart cells and back to the heart
    • � Five different types of blood vessels:
    • ? Arteries
    • ? Arterioles
    • ? Capilliaries
    • ? Venules
    • ? veins
  17. Arteries
    • Strong elatic vessels that carry blood away from the heart
    • Branch into smaller aterioles
  18. Veins
    • Carry blood back to the heart
    • Have thinner walls than arteries
    • Small branches are called venules
  19. Arteries and veins
    • Have three layers:
    • Tunica external
    • Conntective tissue with elastic and collagen fibers
    • Tunica media
    • Made of smooth muscles
    • Mediates vasoconstrition and vasodilation
    • Tunica interna
    • Made of simple squamous epithelium
    • Provides surface for blood to pass through
  20. Arterioles
    • Large arterioles have similartr composition as arteries
    • Small arterioles have endothelial cell and some smooth muscle fibers surround by thin layer of conmnective tissue
  21. Capillaries
    • Smallest diameter blood vessels
    • Made of endothelial layer only
    • Have slits
    • They are the site of gas exchange with cells

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