chapter 22 respiratory system.txt

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chapter 22 respiratory system.txt
2011-05-27 18:08:04
chapter respiratory system

chapter 22 respiratory system
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  1. Function of the respiratory system
    • In order for cells to survive they must use oxygen and remove the metabolic waste
    • The respiratory system allows the exchange of gasses
    • Brings oxygen into thebody and removes carbon dioxide
    • Helps control the tempature and water content of air
    • Produces sounds
    • Regulation of pH
    • Sense of smell
  2. Nasal cavity
    • Nasal conchae are bones that curl from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity
    • The conchae support the mucous membrane and increase the surface area
    • Mucous membrane contains pseudo stratified epithelium and goblet cells
    • Traps dirt particles
    • Responsible for heating and moisting incoming air
  3. Paranasal sinus
    • Air filled spaces located within the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones
    • Mucous membrane that is continuous with the nasal cavity lines the sinuses
    • Reduce the weight of the skull and act as resonant chambers for voice
  4. Pharynx
    • Behind oral cavity, nasal cavity and larynx
    • Named based on location:
    • Nasopharynx, orapharynx, laryngopharynx
    • Passageway of food and air
  5. Larynx
    • conducts air in and out of the trachea
    • prevents foreign objects from entering the trachea
    • houses the vocal cords (muscle, connective, and epithealium tissue)
    • contains the thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and epigloctic cartilage
    • epiglottis is a flap like cartilagenous structure that routes the air and the food in the proper channels
  6. trachea (windpipe)
    • flexible cylindrical tube anterior to the esophagus
    • lined with a mucous membrane
    • moves entrapped air particles to pharynx
    • surrounded by C-shaped hyaline cartilage
  7. Bronchial tree
    • consists of branched airways starting at the trachea and ending in the alveoli
    • thrachea branches into right and left primary bronchi
    • this leads to secondary bronchi, tertairy bronchi to bronchioles (terminal and respiratory)
    • the branching ends wwith the alveolar ducts that leads to aveolar sacs and finally to alveoli which are the site of gas exchang in the blood
  8. structre of the Airways
    • the primary bronchi are similar to the trachea and are surounded by cartilage
    • secondary and tertiary bronchi have less cartilage
    • bronchioles lack cartilage but have smooth muscle
    • aveoli are made of simple squamous cells and have no cartilage or smooth muscle around them
  9. alveolus
    • made of simple squamous epithelium to allow diffusion to occur
    • the oxygen picked up from the aveoli goes through the pulmonary veins back to the left atrium of the heart
    • surrounded by alot of capilaries for gas exchange
    • contains macrophages to fight infection
    • releases surfactant which is important in lung function
  10. breathing
    • change in pressure within the luncgs is important for breathing to occur
    • gas exchange occurs by process of diffusion
    • the pressure gradient drives gas exchange
  11. inspiration
    • during inspiration the thoracic cavity volume increases due to
    • diaphragm pushing down
    • external intercostals pushing out
    • in forced inspiration, additional muscles such as pertoralis minor, sternocleidomastoid contract
  12. expiration
    • passive porcess where muscles recoil
    • forced expiration involves the use of internal intercostal, ext4ernal and internal obliques
  13. respiratory centeres
    located in the pons and medulla oblongata