chapter 25 urinary system.txt

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  1. Why do we need a urinary system?
    • To eliminate waste products
    • (Nitrogenous wastes, toxins, drugs)
    • To maintain water and electrolyte balance
    • To regulate blood pressure
    • To control the level of red blood cells
    • To activate vitamin D
    • To control a constant level of pH
  2. What are organs of the urinary system?
    • Kidneys
    • Ureters
    • Urinary bladder
    • urethra
  3. Where are the kidneys located?
    • Located retroperitoneally
    • Anchored against the dorsal body wall by a lot of adipose tissue
    • At the level of T12-L3
    • Attached to a ureter renal artery and vein and the nerves at the renal hilium
    • Has an adrenal gland located at the top of each kidney
  4. Frontal section through the kidney
    • The kidneys contain two layers: renal cortex and renal medulla
    • The renal medulla contain few pyramids
    • Renal pyramids lead to the minor calyx which leads to the major calyx
    • Major calyces collect in the renal pelvis which leads to the ureter
  5. Nephrons: the functional unit of the kidneys
    • Nephrons are the functional units of the kidney where urine formation occur
    • Each kidney has 1 million nephrons
  6. Blood Pathways of the nephrons
    • The renal artery leads to the interlobar artery to the articulate artery then to the interlobular artery
    • The interlular artery leads to the afferent arteriole
    • This in turns leads to a network of capillaries called glomerulus
  7. Parts of the nephrons
    • Glomerular capsule: receives filtrate from glomerulus
    • Proximal convoluted tubule
    • Descending loop of henle
    • Ascending loop of henle
    • Distal convoluted tuble
  8. Glomerular filtration
    Filtration is the process of the fluid leaving the glomerulus into the glomerular capsule of the nephrons
  9. Urine formation
    • Three processes:
    • Glomerular filtration:
    • Movement of water ions urea glucose
    • amino acids from the blood to the lumen of nephron
    • Tubular reabsorption
    • The movement of substances from the nephron into the blood (water ions glucose)
    • Tubular secretion
    • Moving substances from the blood into the nephron (hydrogen ions, toxin)
  10. Urinary bladder
    • A hollow distensible muscular organ
    • Stores urine and forces it into the urethra
    • Includes a triangular area called the trigone which has three openings
    • Has four layers
  11. Layers of the bladder
    • Mucousal layer
    • Made of transitional epithelium

    • Submucousal layer:
    • connective tissue and elastic fibers
    • Muscular layer
    • Detrusor muscle (smooth muscle ) that is innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system
    • Forms internal urethral sphincter that prevents the bladder from emptying
    • Serous layer
    • Parietal peritoneum and connective tissue
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chapter 25 urinary system.txt
2011-05-27 22:12:18
chapter urinary system

chapter 25 urinary system
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