Perception Lec 3

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  1. Perception
    • SOI MC
    • The process by which an individual selects, organises and interprets stimuli to form a meaningful and coherent picture of the world.

    Two ppl may be exposed to same stimuli, but they may SOI these stimuli in different ways.
  2. Key Elements of Perception
    Sensation: The immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to simple stimuli.

    Sensation from exposure to stimuli varies according to: the quality of the individual’s sensory receptors, the amount or the intensity of the stimuli, interest in stimuli, ability to catch attention

    As sensory input decreases, our ability to detect changes in input or intensity increases.

    Absolute Threshold: “The lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation

    • Differential Threshold (JND or Weber's Law):
    • The minimal difference that can be detected between two stimuli.

    JND is relative to the intensity of the first stimulus. It holds true to all the senses and at almost all intensities.

    Subliminal Perception: stimuli below conscious awareness i.e. perceive stimuli without being consciously aware of the stimuli in question.
  3. Selective Perception/Attention
    A heightened awareness of stimuli relevant to one's needs or interests.

    • Selection depends on:
    • The nature of the stimulus itself (physical attributes).
    • Consumer prior experience as it affects
    • Motives at the time (needs, interests, desires).

  4. Selective Perception/Attention Concepts
    Selective exposure: Consumers seek out stimuli they find pleasant or with which they agree, or are sympathetic towards. They actively avoid uncomfortable or painful stimuli.

    Selective perception/attention: A heightened awareness of stimuli relevant to one's needs or interests.

    Perceptual blocking: Deliberate tuning out (blocking) of stimuli. Tends to occur when consumers are being bombarded with stimuli. They block the stimuli from conscious awareness.

    Perceptual defence: The screening out of stimuli or distortion of information that is inconsistent with beliefs/values.
  5. Perceptual Organisation
    People tend to “group” together the various stimuli that they are exposed to - individual stimuli's are perceived as a unified whole.

    • Gestalt psychology
    • Figure and Ground:  One part of stimulus will dominate (the figure), and other parts recede into the background (the ground).

    Grouping: Individuals tend to group stimuli to form a unified picture or impression.

    Grouping facilitates memory and recall

    Imply certain desired meanings associated with products.

    Closure: Individuals look for closure and do this by organising their perceptions so that they form a complete picture
  6. Perceptual Interpretation
    Cognitive interpretation - process whereby stimuli are placed in known categories of meaning:

    • Lexical or semantic meaning
    • Semiotic meaning - symbols
    • Psychological meaning

    Affective interpretation: The emotional or feeling response triggered by a stimulus
  7. Distorting influences
    • FISH PJ
    • First impressions
    • Irrelevant cues
    • Stereotypes
    • Halo effect
    • Physical appearance
    • Jumping to conclusions
  8. Consumer Imagery: Positioning
    The image/perception of the product or service in the mind of the consumer.

    Essence of the MM, conveys concept of the product.
  9. Some Positioning Strategies

    • Positioning against the competition
    • Positioning based on a specific benefit (functional/emotional)
    • Umbrella positioning (Company image -Kelloggs)
    • Finding an ‘unowned’ position
    • Filling several positions

    also User positioning.
  10. Perceptual Mapping
    A technique designed to show how products and services are perceived, in the minds of consumers, relative to competitive brands, based on a number of attributes
  11. Perceived Price and Reference Price
    Consumers perceive price in terms of actual amount to be sacrificed and the value to be gained.

    • Any price that consumers use as a basis for comparison in judging another price.
    • External reference (the normal displayed price)
    • Internal reference (learned)
  12. Perceived Quality of Products/Services
    Products: Previous experience, intrinsic, extrinsic cues (store).

    Services: Variability, Intangibility, Inseperability, Perishability.
  13. Types of Perceived Risks

    • Functional
    • Financial
    • Psychological
    • Physical
    • Time
    • Social
Card Set
Perception Lec 3
Perception Lec 3
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