Intro Nursing Ch 1

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Intro Nursing Ch 1
2011-06-05 14:12:17
Fundamentals Nursing Intro

Fundamentals of Nursing Ch 1 vocab
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  1. Fabiola
    wealthy matron of the Roman Empire - converted to Chrisitanity and used her wealth and power to care for poor, sick, and homeless (forerunners of Hospitals)
  2. Knights of Saint Lazarus
    dedicated to caring for people with leprosy, syphilis, and chronic skin conditions
  3. Sojourner Truth
    Worked as a nurse during the civil war, Undergound Railroad agent (provided care to fleeing salves), preacher, women's rights advocate
  4. Harriet Tubman
    • Moses of her people
    • worked the Undergound Railroad and provided care to fleeing slaves
  5. Dorothea Dix
    During the Civil war- Union's Superindendent of Female nurses - recruited nurses and supervised all nurses working in army hospitals
  6. Sairy Gamp
    • Fictional character - Charles Dickens (Martin Chuzzlewit) 1896
    • gave negative view of nurses - she neglected the sick, stole from them, and abused them.
  7. Florence Nighingale
    • Founder of Modern Nursing
    • Developed nursing education, practice, and administration

    Crimean War (1854-1856) Transfored British military hospitals by setting up sanitation practices.

    Opened a nurses training school in 1860
  8. Clara Barton
    Founded the American Red Cross
  9. Linda Richards
    • America's first trained nurse - 1873
    • Initiated nurses wearing uniforms, nurses notes, and Doctors orders
  10. Mary Mahoney
    • first African American professional nurse
    • Graduated 1879 (New England Hosp for Women & Children)
  11. Lillian Wald
    • founder of public health
    • Henry Street Settlement and Visiting Nurse Service (in New Slums)
  12. Lavinia Dock
    Activist for Women's Rights - 1920 Women's right to vote

    Founded American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses
  13. Margaret Higgins Sanger
    • Founder of Planned Parenthood
    • Inprisoned for opening first birth control information clinic in 1916
  14. Mary Breckinridge
    • established the Frontier Nursing Service - FNS
    • provied heath care for people in rural areas
    • First mid-wifery traing school in US
  15. consumer
    individual, group of people, or community that uses a service or commodity
  16. Client
    person who engages the advice or services of another who is qualified to provide this service.

    Client presents the reveivers of health care as collaboraors in the care
  17. Standards of Practice
    to describe the responsibitites for which a nurse is accountable - the ANA sets the standards of pracitce

    -what a reasonable and prudent nurse would do in a given situation
  18. patient
    • a person who is waiting for or undergoing medical treatment and care
    • - comes from the Latin word patient comes from a Latin word meaning "to suffer" or "to bear"
  19. Standards of Professional Performance
    describe behaviors expected in the professional nursing role - set by the ANA
  20. Scope of Practice
    1. Promotion of heath and wellness - (prevent accidents in the home - promote health, not prevent disease)

    2. Prevention of illness - vaccine, teach good health habits

    3. Restoration of heath - hospital care

    4. Care for the dying - hospice
  21. Roles & Functions of Nurses
    1. Caregiver - #1 role - assist client physically and psychologically while preserving the clients dignity

    2. Communicator - identify client problems and communicate them (verbally or in writing) to other members of health team

    3. Teacher - helps client learn about their health needs and health care procedures

    4. Patient advocate - voice of the patient - protect the client

    5. Counselor - helps client to recognize and cope with stressful psychologic or social problems

    6. Change agent - assists clients to make modifications to their behavior

    7. Leader - influences others to work together to accomplish a specific goal

    8. Manager - delegates nursing activities to ancillary workers and other nurses - supervise and evaluate their performance

    9. Case Manager - work with multidisciplinary health care team to measure effectiveness of case management plan and monitor outcomes

    10. Research consumer - use research to improve client care
  22. Expanded Career Roles
    1. Nurse practitioner - advanced education & graduare of a nurse practitioner program

    2. Nurse administrator - manages client care, including delivery of nursing services

    3. Clinical nurse specialist - advanced degree or expertise - considered an expert in a specialized area of practice (oncology, gerontology)

    4. Nurse educator - educational instititions and hospital staff education

    5. Nurse anesthetist - preoperative visits & assessments - administers general anesthetics for surgery

    6. Nurse midwife - gives prenatal and postnatal care and manages deliveries in normal pregnancies

    7. Nurse researcher - investiges nursing problems to improve nursing care and to refine and expand nursing knowledge
  23. Professionalism
    professional character, spirit, or methods

    • -basically intellictual with a high degree of individual responsibility
    • - based on a body of knowledge supported and refined with research
    • - practical and theoretical
    • - involves a highly specialized professional education
    • - strong orginization
    • - practitioners are motivated by altruism (motivated to help others) & respond to public interests
  24. profession
    an occupation that requires extensive education or a calling that requires special knowledge, skill, and preparation
  25. professionalization
    process of becoming professional - acquireing characteristics considered to be professional
  26. Governance
    establishment and maintenance or social, political, and economic arrangements by which practitioners control their practice, their self-discilpline, their working conditons, and their prodessional affairs
  27. Socialization
    prosess by which people learn to become members of groups and society and learn the social rules defining relationships into which they will enter
  28. Brenner's Model of Socialization
    1. Novice - student - no experience - goverened by rules and regulations rather than experience

    2. Advanced Beginner - Marginally acceptable performance - has enough experience of real situations to make judgments about them

    3. Competent - 2-3 years experience - organizational and planning abilities - differentiated important factors from less important aspects of care

    4. Proficient - 3-5 years - See situation as whole rather than in parts- holistic understanding of the client which improves decision making - focuses on long-term goals

    5. Expert - performance is fluid, flexible, and highly proficient - Demonstrates highly skilled intuitive and analytic ability in new situations - inclined to take action becuase "it felt right"
  29. diagnostic-related groups- DRGs
    system to establish reimbursement fees according to the client;s medical diagnosis
  30. telecomminications
    transmission of information from one site to another, using equipment (technology)
  31. Patient Self-Determination Act PDSA
    requires every competent adult to be informed in writing on admission to a health care instittion about his or her rights to accept or refuse medical care and to use advance directives
  32. Demography
    study of population, including statistice about distribution by age and place of residence, mortality, and morbidity (incidence of disease)
  33. Barriers to Nursing Professionalism
    • 1. Differences in educational preparation - RN covers all levels of education - diploma nurse, ADN, BSN - all viewed as an RN
    • 2. Gender Issues
    • 3. Historical influences - men went to war, women nursed the sick (no formal preparation) nurses are meant to help doctors
    • 4. External conflicts - many sets of guidelines & rules - follow rules of hospital you are working for
    • 5. Internal conflicts- nurse must act ethically
    • 6. Difficulty clarifying the role of a nurse - role confusion
  34. The Professional Self
    • 1. Accountability - to patients, other health care professional
    • 2. Effective communication -vertical & horizontal communication
    • 3. Compassion
    • 4. Confidentiality - guard patients personal information
    • 5. Pursuit of excellence
    • 6. Integrity
    • 7. Respect
  35. Socialization of Nursing
    • FORMAL
    • 1. Nursing care plans
    • 2. Communication
    • - a. Verbal
    • - b. Written
    • 3. Critical thinking skills
    • 4. technical skills

    • 1. Learned incidentally - learn constantly
    • 2. Absorbing information - keep eyes & ears open - listen when patient talks - watch for cues -NEVER disregard patient complaints
    • 3. Positive or negative
    • 4. Unstructured & powerful
  36. Kramer's Model
    Reality Shock & Burnout
    • 1. Dissonance between school & practice
    • 2. Lack of support
    • 3. Lack of positive reinforcement
    • 4. Irritability
    • 5. Cynicism
    • 6. Indifference to patients & families

    • 1. realist
    • 2. use balanced values from ideal & reality
    • 3. works to influence positive change
    • 4. Leader - formal & informal
    • 5. Cares for self
    • 6. Embraces professionalism
  37. Positive Nursing Actions
    • 1. Advocate for self, patients & your profession
    • 2. Reach for a high level of professionalism