From Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice (4th edition), 2006, Renfrew and Bahn, Thames & Hudson
What later addition to the division of C.J. Thompson's ''Stone Age'' is associated with the dominance of microliths?
Material remains from hunting and gathering practices are very important in reconstructing the Paleolithic period. Of those artifacts recovered ________ dominate the archaeological record.
A _____________ or hollow of a decayed pointed wooden stick recovered from the Middle Paleolithic rock shelter of Abric Romani in Northeast Spain dates to almost 50,000 years ago
Which controversy led to the early attempts to establish criteria for recognizing human agency such as characteristic bulbs of percussion on flint purposefully struck?
The eolith debate
Which activities can archaeologists observe which may give clues to possible early tool-making, -using, and -discarding behaviors of early hominids?
Chimpanzees cracking nuts
An example of an unaltered material used to create objects is
At mine site of Rijckholt in the Neatherlands, archaeologists found evidence for 5000 shafts which could produce up to 153 million _________.
______________ and _______________ are probably the best way to determine scientifically how great stone blocks (such as the 23-ft high alabaster statue of Egyptian Prince Djehutihetep) were transported and erected.
Calculations, actual experiments
Jean-Pierre Protzen's work in reconstructing ___________ stonework techniques is supported by 16th century written accounts.
The first recognizable tools are simple choppers and flakes. The earliest known examples are the so-called
Modern Flint knapping (the making of stone tools) is a type of as
Donald Crabtree was able to solve the mystery of the production of Folsom points through trial and error and with the aid of a decisive clue discovered in an account by a 16th-century Spanish priest who watched Aztec Indians make long knife-blades from obsidian. This key method involved using a
The only direct proof of function of a stone tool is the study of
At the South African site of Kasteelberg (AD 950) occupants were primarily using ___________ to create bone tools, similar to ethnographic examples known from the San (Bushmen) of the Kalahari.
The function of perforated antler batons of the European Upper Paleolithic is much-debated. Among the theories are that they were
All of the above
Using _______________ in the Somerset Levels John and Bryony Coles have been able to prove that at least 10 different axes were used in the construction of the Bronze Age track.
In the 1960s excavation off Kyrenia, Cyprus, showed that Greek _________ in 4th Century BC were built with planks held together by mortise and tenon joints.
The presence of _________ from the Aegean islands off the Greek mainland 10,000 years ago shows that people had no difficulty in sailing to and from the islands.
The richest New World evidence for textiles and weaving methods comes from
The intentional use and control of fire by humans is known as
Tempers are inclusions in pottery which act as a filler to give the clay added strength and workability. Types of temper include
All of the above
The manufacture of true glass requires the melting and cooling of which substance?
By the late Bronze Age of the Aegean (1500 BC) craftworkers were using a wide range of fine metalworking techniques. These techniques included working in relief with hand-controlled punches on sheet metal. This process is known as
In __________ cast iron and wrought iron technologies appear almost simultaneously in the 7th century BC, even though cast iron requires a greater sophistication in the manufacture and operation of furnaces.
In the ethnoarchaeological project conducted by Peter Schmidt and Donald Avery among the Haya of northwestern Tanzania, the goal was to recreate the _________ which had been practiced as recently as 60-70 years ago.
Eoliths, crude stone pebbles found in Upper Pleistocene contexts, were once thought to be the work of humans but are now generally regarded as natural formations. True or False?
It has been traditionally thought that tool-making separated humans from apes, but the past 30 years of research have revealed that wild chimpanzees make and use stone tools. True or False?
The abundance of a certain tool-type in the archaeological record is not necessarily a guide to its intrinsic importance. True or False?
Human use of fire (pyrotechnology) is not that crucial in producing synthetic material. True or False?
Experiments recreating the carvings of Easter Island suggest that six carvers with stone hammers could have shaped a 16-ft statue in approximately a year. True or False?
Captain Cook suggested that ramps of earth or timber scaffolds were used to place the topknots of the Easter Island statues. True or False?
A burin is an example of a specialized flint tool produced in the Upper Paleolithic. True or False?
Types of tools found at a site can provide clues about the function of the site. True or False?
At the Belgian site of Rekem the lithic industry is characterized by a poorly elaborated blade technology, with the production of short blades. True or False?
In addition to valuable information about stone tools, the Somerset Levels project has also demonstrated that woodlands were left to grow and were not intentionally manipulated by humans. True or False?