Patho Exam 5 lecture 12

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Patho Exam 5 lecture 12
2011-05-31 15:54:28

Disorders of the small and large intestines
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  1. alterations of intestinal motility
    • diarrhea
    • constipation
    • intestinal obstruction
  2. Intestinal obstruction
    • partial or complete blockage of the intestinal lumen of the small or large bowel
    • obstruction prevents the passing of fecal matter
    • there is backup pressure due to gas and fluid accumulation, which causes vomitting
    • gas and fluid causes distention of abdominal cavity
    • lumen distention which causes ischemia (can lead to necrosis)
    • necrosis can leaf to perforation (causes peritonitis)
  3. Types of intestinal obstruction
    • intussuception
    • valvulus
    • inguinal hernia (strangulated hernia)
  4. Intussusception
    • intestinal bowel obstruction
    • is a telescoping or invagination of a portion of the bowel into an adjacent distal portion
    • proximal bowel gets stuck in distal bowel when passing bolus/fecal through peristalisis
  5. Valvulus
    • is twisting of the bowel on itself, causing intestinal obstruction and blood vessel compression
    • The two most common sites for the development of volvulus are the cecum and the sigmoid colon
  6. inguinal hernia
    • also called strangulated hernia
    • piece of bowel drops into inguinal canal
  7. diarrhea
    • An increase in the frequency and fluidity of bowel movements.
    • It is usually a primary sign of gastrointestinal tract disorders.
    • acute and chronic
  8. acute diarrhea
    last less than 4 days
  9. chronic diarrhea
    last more than 3 weeks
  10. constipation
    • A condition of having small, infrequent, and difficult bowel movements
    • failure to respond to the urge
  11. dietary deficiency
    results in low fiber
  12. peritonitis
    • an inflammation of the peritoneum.
    • caused by enteric bacterial invasion or chemical reaction
    • can lead to toxemia or septic shock (dilation)
  13. enteric bacteria
    reside in the GI tract
  14. Malsbsorption syndromes
    • failure of the GI tract to absorb or normally digest one or more dietary constituents
    • ie ciliac sprue
  15. Celiac disease
    • also called celiac sprue
    • intolerance of gluten, a protein in wheat and wheat products
    • leads to a Tcell response that causes an inflammatory response
  16. intestinal cancer
    adenomatous polyps and colorectal cancer
  17. polyps
    • any protrusion into the lumen of the GI tract.
    • may be benign or malignant
  18. colon
    site that has more primary tumors than any other organ in the body
  19. adenomatous polyps
    • most differentiated
    • constant mitotic division results in mutation of cells
    • **polyps-mutated cells that continue rapid mitotic division
    • **progress to form tubular adenoma (5%) or velous adenoma (40%)
  20. colorectal cancer
    • vast majority is from malignant transformation of polyps
    • high fat intake may be a cause
    • increased risk with ulcerative colitis
    • occult bleeding (microscopic)
    • stool occult blood screening test needed