Final Part 2 skeletal amd cardiac muscle and neurotoxins

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kwoolley
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88212
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Final Part 2 skeletal amd cardiac muscle and neurotoxins
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2011-05-29 15:46:48
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Physiology cardiac skeletal
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The final questions that have to do with skeletal and cardiac muscle
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  1. How would the loss of acetylecholinesterase from the motor end plate affect skeletal muscle?
    A. The muscles would be contracted and unable to relax.
    B. It would have little effect on skeletal muscles
    C. The muscles would relax and unable to contract.
    D.It would produce muscle weakness
    E. It would make the muscles less excitable.
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which of the following statements is correct in comparing cardiac autorythmic and skeletal muscle cells?
    A. Skeletal muscle cells and cardiac autorthymic cells only use Na+ for depolarization
    B. Skeletal muscle cells use K+ and cardiac autorythmic cells use K+ for repolarization.
    C. Skeletal muscle cells and cardiac autorythmic cells both use Na+ and Ca2+ for depolarization.
    D. Skeletal muscle cells use K+ and cardiac autorythmic cells use Ca2+ for repolarization
    B. ?
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. increases in venous return to the right atria trigger a reflex known as the...
    Bainbridge complex
  4. Besides the size of muscle fibers what else will determine the amount of force of a skeletal muscle contraction?
    • Frequency of a stimulus
    • Length of a muscle cell (80% to 120%)
    • Number of fibers involved
  5. At rest, active sites on the actin of skeletal muscle tissue are physically blocked by...
    A. Ca+
    B. troponin molecules
    C. myosin molecule
    D. Tropomyosin molecules
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. At the peak of a action potential in a neuron,
    A. Both the electrical gradient for K+ tends to move this ion out of the cell occur.
    B. The electrical gradient for K+ tends to move this ion out of the cell.
    C. concentration gradient for K+ tends to move this ion out of the cell.
    D. the permeability for K+ greatly increases
    E. the electrical gradient for K+ tends to move this ion out of the cell, the concentration gradient for K+ tends to move this ion out of the cell, and the permeability for K+ greatly increases occur.
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. increases in Na+ permeability in autorythmic cells would have what effect on cardiac function?
    A. increase in heart rate
    B. Increase in strength of cardiac contraction
    C. decreases cardiac output
    D. Decreases heart rate
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Increases in blood pressure will have what affect on heart rate?
    ???Increase heart rate??? Since there's less cardiac output the heart compensates???
  9. The action potential is conducted down into a skeletal muscle fiber by...
    A. transverse tubules
    B. Triads
    C. neuromuscular junction
    D. sarcoplasmic reticulum
    A. I believe
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. During peak (maximal) levels of physical activity which metabolic pathway within skeletal muscle tissue is skeletal muscle tissue depending on for the production of most of its ATP and how many net ATP are produced and why this pathway?
    No or little O2 available so it breaks down a glucose and that makes 2 pyruvic acid creating 2 ATP.
  11. During a resting heart rate the normal EDV would be____mLs; the ESV would be _______mls.
    65,135
  12. What does the duration of a muscle contraction depend on?
    • The amount of Ca+ in the sarcoplasma
    • If there is ATP available
    • Duration of neural stimulus
  13. Specifically how does the neurotoxin batrachotoxin interfere with the formation of action potentials?
    ???
  14. Name the neurotransmitter that causes a decrease in heart rates and identify which autonomic nervous system this neurotransmitter comes from?
    parasympathetic nervous system, ACh
  15. What causes the Frank- Starling principle to take place?
    When the ventricle is filled up with more then usual amount of blood, this causes the ventricle to stretch so the actin and myosin line up more efficiently, causing a stronger contraction in the ventricle. The heart can only stretch so far before the pericardial sac wont let it anymore.
  16. Creatine phosphate in skeletal muscle tissue gets its phosphate from what molecule?
    • ATP
    • Creatine phosphate + ADP = ATP + creatine
  17. What is responsible for the plateau seen in the action potential of cardiac contractile tissue?
    A. Na+ efflux & Ca2+ influx
    B. K+ influx & Ca2+ influx
    C. Ca2+ influx & K+ efflux
    D. Ca2+ influx only
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. What part of the brain is involved in altering the heart rate?
    A. the medulla
    B. the mid-brain
    C. the pons
    D. the cerebrum
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. All of the following are true of graded potentials except they:
    A. can form on receptor endings
    B. Are short-lived
    C. can be called postsynaptic potentials
    D. increase amplitude as they move away from the stimulus point
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which of the following would increase heart rate?
    A. increased levels of norepinephrine
    B. faster depolarization of the pacemaker potential
    C. increased sympathetic stimulation of SA node
    D. decreased parasympathetic stimulation of nodal fibers
    E. all of the above
    E.
  21. Acetylcholine slows the heart rate because it..
    A. causes the pacemaker potential to depolarize more slowly.
    B. A and D only
    C. opens potassium ion channels in SA node cells
    D. open sodium-calcium ions channels in SA node cells
    E. Causes the pacemaker potential to depolarize more quickly.
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Each of the following factors will increase cardiac output, except...
    A. increased venous return
    B. Both A and C
    C. increased heart rate
    D. increased sympathetic stimulation
    E. increased parasympathetic stimulation
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Stroke volume depends on
    A. the contractility of the ventricle
    B. A and B only
    C. end diastolic volume
    D. the pressure required to pump blood into the aorta
    E. A, B, and C
    E.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. When a muscle is stimulated repeatedly at a high right, the amount of tension gradually increases to a steady maximum tension. This is called...
    A. recruitment
    B. a twitch
    C. incomplete tetanus
    D. Wave summation
    E. complete tetanus
    C. ??
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Name the neurotransmitter released from the parasympathetic nervous system onto the heart and the specific receptor this neurotransmitter will bind with in the heart tissue?
    ACh and the receptor is muscerinic
  26. Under normal healthy conditions when a skeletal muscle is in peak level of activity the mitochondria are not generating their maximal number of ATP because...
    A. there is not enough oxygen
    B. there is not enough fatty acids
    C. these is not enough glucose
    D. there is not enough pyruvic acid
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. During an electrocardiogram which part is associated with the ventricles depolarizing?
    A. the QRS wave
    B. the T wave
    C. the S-T part
    D. none of the above
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Which of the following would decrease heart rate?
    A. increased levels of norepinephrine
    B. faster repolarization of the SA node's membrane potential
    C. increased sympathetic stimulation of SA node
    decreased parasympathetic stimulation of the SA node
    E. none of the above
    E.
  29. in cardiac contractile cells, the very first portion of the repolarization phase of the action potential is the result of...
    A. increased membrane permeability to Ca+
    B. increased membrane permeability to Cl-
    C. increased membrane permeability Na+
    D. increased membrane permeability to K+
    D.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Each skeletal muscle cell has how many neuromuscular junctions?
    1 neuromuscular junction per muscle cell
  31. During a normal heart rate of 72 beats per minute we find there is _____ mL blood in the left ventricle at the start of each ventrivular contraction and at the end of the contraction there is ____ mL of blood.
    135 and 65
  32. The most important factor in increasing the intracellular concentration of Ca+ in a skeletal muscle fiber is..
    A. diffusion of Ca+ out of the cell
    B. a higher frequency of action potentials.
    C. diffusion of Ca+ into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
    D. Active transport of Ca+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
    E. active transport of Ca+ across the sarcolemma
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Two parts to this question. When autorythmic cells have a lower then notmal amount of extracellular K+ this creats a condition known as ______ (fill in the blank) and this would cause...
    A. the cells to become hypopolarized
    B. a change in repolarization rates of autorythmic cells.
    C. no affect because it would be offset by a decrease of Ca2+ entering the cell
    D. the cells to become hyperpolarized.
    hypokalemia and D.
  34. During moderate levels of skeletal muscle activity what are the different substances with the mitochondria using to generate ATP? Think carefully
    The mitochondria is using O2 and the fatty acids from the blood stream and mitochondria is also using pyruvic acid that was a break down from glucose (that gave 2 ATP in the process of breaking glucose into pyruvic acid) the pryuvic once in the mitochondria create 32ATP
  35. Cardiac output is increased by...
    A. more sympathetic stimulation
    B. increased end systolic volume
    C. increased stroke volume
    D. all of the above
    E. A and C only
    E.
  36. During a skeletal muscle contraction which of the following actually changes in size?
    A. the actin myofilaments
    B. the sarcomere
    C. Both A and B
    D. the myosin myofilaments
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Describe a general way what is taking place with each of the different component of a skeletal muscle twitch.
    The latent period before it can start the twitch is when the AP is going down the T tubules and lets ca+ out. The Ca+ binds to troponin. When the latent phase is over the actual twitch begins and the myosin heads attach to the actin do the power stroke and then relax and it's back to normal again.
  38. If the signal from the SA node to the AV node is prevented...
    A. the ventricles will beat faster
    B. the ventricles will beat more slowly.
    C. the ventricular rate of contraction will not be affected
    D. none of the above
    B
  39. Assume normal levels of k+ inside and outside of the cell for this question. If the membrane of the SA nodes cells has significantly fewer leaky K+ channels, the...
    A. stroke volume will increase
    B. heart rate and stroke volume will not be changed
    C. heart rate will decrease
    D. heart rate will increase
    D
  40. List 2 different types of factors that can lead to an increase in stroke volume.
    If more blood goes into the atria because of increased activity (bainbridge) then the heart rate will increase and that will increase the EDV sense more blood is coming to the ventricles the heart will sense more blood is coming to the ventricles, the heart will contract stronger (Frank Starling) because the actin and myosin are lined up better. More blood would be pumped out causing decreased ESV
  41. When the following best describes the direct (immediate) cause of an end-plate potential forming on skeletal muscle cell?
    A. opening of a nicotinic receptor
    B. opening of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels on the motor end plate
    C. opening of an adrenergic receptor
    D. opening of voltage- gated Ca2+ channels
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. What is responsible for the plateau portion of the cardiac contraction action potential?
    The Ca@ voltage gates open Ca+ comes in simultaneously the K+ voltage gates are already open letting K+ out of the cell. The Ca+ and the K= reach a sort of equilibrium until the ca+ voltage gates finally close then the cell finishes repolarization.
  43. What causes the atrial reflex to take place and how does the heart respond because of this reflex?
    The atrial reflex also called the Bainbridge reflex happens when the atria stretch more then normal because of increased blood flow. The stretch receptors in the atria tell the medulla, the medulla tells the heart to increase through the sympathetic epinephrine release.
  44. if the connection between the vagus nerve and the heart is cut, which of these changes will occur?
    A. the heart will beat with a greater force
    B. the heart will beat with less force
    C. the heart will beat faster
    D. the heart will beat slower
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Describe what is taking place in the ventricle during isovolumic contraction phase.
    The heart is filled with the 135 mL of blood so all the valves close and the ventricle contracts which increases the pressure in the chamber but the volume stays the same.
  46. List the different myogenic (autorythmic) cardiac cells that are capable of spontaneously generating action potentials and give their approximate rates of producing action potentials.
    • Sa Node- 80-100 AP/min
    • AV node- 40-60 AP/min
    • Perkjine fibers- 20 AP/min
  47. Draw a diaghram demonstrating the action potential seen in a autorythmic cell. for each segment of the AP indicate the ions involved and their direction.
    make sure the sides are labels that you label threshold! and you indicated the ions going in and out.
  48. A drug that blocks the neurotransmitter receptors located on a skeletal muscle cell
    A. would cause the muscles to be relaxed and unable to contract
    B. would make the muscles more excitable
    C. would cause the muscles to be contracted and unable to relax
    D. would produce uncontrolled muscle spasms
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Provide 1 structural explanation for why the electrical impulse (from the SA) slows down as it reaches the AV node.
    • 1) as the fibers from the SA node reach the AV node they get smaller and smaller in diameter the slower the impulse (type C vs. type A fibers)
    • 2) There are less gap junctions
  50. Which if the following statements is correct?
    A. Ryanodine receptors inhibit the function of DHP receptors
    B. DHP receptors transmit a current to ryanodine receptors which causes Ca2+ to be released.
    C. ryanodine receptors transmit a current to DHP receptors which causes Ca2+ to be released
    D. DHP and ryanodine receptors both being on the sarcoplasmic reticulum cause the release of Ca2+
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. In an concentric contraction,
    A. tension rises and falls but the muscle length is constant
    B. the load moves due to a single nerve impulse
    C. muscle tension is greater than the load and the muscle lifts the load
    D. the peak tension is less than the load
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Choose the best answer that completes this statement. Drugs that block the beta-one andrenergic receptors on the heart will...
    A. prevent the heart rate from decreasing
    B. prevent the heart rate from increasing
    C. cause a increase in blood pressure
    D. cause the heart rate to increase
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. List 3 major factors that will determine the duration of a single muscle contraction
    • Duration of a stimulus
    • Number of Ca+ in the sarcoplasma outside the SR
    • A TP is available.
    • (DNA)
  54. In terms of cardiac reflexes what do we call the cells that are located in the right atrium and also the aorta that monitor the blood pressure there? and how does the heart rate respond if there is an increase in the blood pressure?
    These are called baroreceptors and the slow the heart down
  55. Briefly but specifically identify how Butulinum toxins and BTX toxins alter the functioning of a neuron.
    • Botulinum stops the neuron from preforming exocytosis so the neurotransmitters wouldn't be able to leave the cell, causing placcid paralyze.
    • BTX opens and keeps the voltage gated Na+ from closing so you can stop making AP's causing Flaccid paralyze.
  56. Which of the following would increase heart rate?
    A. increased levels of norepinephrine
    B. faster repolarization of the SA node
    C. increased sympathetic stimulation of the SA nodes membrane potential
    D. decreased parasympathetic stimulation of the SA node.
    E. all of the above
    E.
  57. During a electrocardiogram which part is associated with the atria depolarizing?
    A. the T wave
    B. the S-T part
    C. the QRS wave
    D. none of the above
    D.
  58. If the signal from the SA node to the AV node is prevented...
    A. the ventricles rate of contraction will not change
    B. the ventricles will beat faster
    C. the ventricles will beat more slowly
    D. none of the above
    C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. At peak levels of skeletal muscle activity the ATP used in muscle contraction comes from...
    A. fatty acids enter the mitochondria
    B. pyruvic acid into the mitochondria
    C. glucose converted into pyruvate acid
    D. creatine phosphate
    C. (creates 2 ATP without O2)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. What is a responsible for a end plate potential becoming a action potential in a skeletal muscle cell?
    A. the activation of voltage gated Na+ channels
    B. the influx of acetylcholine at the region of the end plate potential
    C. the passage of the depolarization wave through the DHP to the ryanodine receptor
    D. the activation of the chemical gated Na+ channels
    A.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. In a resting skeletal muscle
    A. glucose is mainly used to produce pyruvice acid
    B. glycogen is mainly used to pyruvic acid
    C. ATP mainly comes from glucose
    D. none of the above statements is true
    D

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